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Table 2 Univariable associations with perceived dog motivation to walk in 629 dog owners in RESIDE Study, Perth, Western Australia (Sep 2003-Mar 2005)

From: Understanding how dogs encourage and motivate walking: cross-sectional findings from RESIDE

Variable   Disagree/neutral
N (%)
Agree
N (%)
OR 95 % CI P
Dog-related factors
 Number of dogs owned Single 164 (34.2) 315 (65.8) 1   
Multiple 49 (32.7) 101 (67.3) 1.07 0.73–1.59 0.72
 Dog size Small 101 (40.4) 149 (59.6) 1   
Medium/large 109 (29.1) 265 (70.9) 1.65 1.18–2.31 0.004
 Level of attachment to dog Medium/low 61 (58.7) 43 (41.3) 1   
High 152 (29.0) 373 (71.0) 3.48 2.26–5.37 <0.001
 Spouse/partner main person in household who walks with dog Yes 51 (51.0) 49 (49.0) 1   
No 162 (30.6) 367 (69.4) 2.36 1.53–3.64 <0.001
 Child main person in household who walks with dog Yes 38 (69.1) 17 (31.0) 1   
No 175 (30.5) 399 (69.5) 5.10 2.80–9.28 <0.001
 Owns an overweight dog Yes 42 (41.6) 49 (58.4) 1   
No 165 (32.1) 349 (67.9) 1.51 0.97–2.33 0.07
 Affected by poor health or age of dog Yes 104 (39.0) 163 (61.0) 1   
No 107 (30.2) 247 (69.8) 1.47 1.05–2.06 0.02
 Perceived access to Public Open Space with dog-supportive features Poor 52 (28.9) 128 (71.1) 1   
Good/Average 160 (35.9) 286 (64.1) 0.73 0.50–1.06 0.10
 Park within 1.6 km of home with dog-supportive features No 180 (34.0) 349 (66.0) 1   
Yes 33 (33.0) 67 (66.1) 1.05 0.67–1.65 0.84
Cognitive factors
 Subjective norm of family, other owners and veterinarian to walking with dog daily Neutral/Negative 185 (37.8) 305 (62.2) 1   
Positive 26 (19.8) 105 (80.2) 2.45 1.54–3.91 <0.001
 Perceived dog-specific barriers to walking with dog daily Ambivalent-Likely to discourage 87 (26.9) 236 (57.6) 1   
Unlikely to discourage 124 (41.6) 174 (58.4) 1.93 1.38–2.71 0.004
 Knowing dog enjoys going for a walk Ambivalent-Unlikely motivation to walk with dog daily 116 (52.3) 106 (47.7) 1   
Likely motivation to walk with dog daily 95 (23.8) 304 (76.2) 3.50 2.47–4.97 <0.001
 I feel safe when walking with my dogs Ambivalent-Unlikely motivation to walk with dog daily 161 (38.2) 260 (61.8) 1   
Likely motivation to walk with dog daily 50 (25.0) 150 (75.0) 1.86 1.28–2.71 <0.001
 Perceived dog-specific behavioural outcomes from walking with dog daily Ambivalent-Unlikely result in positive outcomes 138 (34.9) 257 (65.1) 1   
Likely positive outcomes 70 (31.5) 152 (68.5) 1.17 0.82–1.66 0.39
 Keep dog healthy Ambivalent-Unlikely outcome of walking with dog daily 63 (60.6) 41 (39.4) 1   
Likely outcomes of walking with dog daily 145 (28.3) 368 (71.7) 3.90 2.52–6.04 <0.001
 Reduce the risk of dog barking Ambivalent-Unlikely outcome of walking with dog daily 186 (36.1) 329 (63.9) 1   
Likely outcome of walking with dog daily 22 (21.6) 80 (78.4) 2.06 1.24–3.41 0.01
 Dog might attack other dogs or people Ambivalent-Likely outcome of walking with dog daily 139 (32.4) 290 (67.6) 1   
Unlikely outcome of walking with dog daily 69 (36.7) 119 (63.3) 1.21 0.85–1.73 0.30
Owner demographic factors
 Gender Male 76 (35.0) 141 (65.0) 1   0.38
Female 136 (33.5) 270 (66.5) 1.07 0.76–1.51 0.70
 Age Mean (SD) years 41.9 (9.9) 41.3 (11.6) 1.0 0.99–1.01 0.54
 Children at home <18 years Yes 145 (43.3) 190 (56.7) 1   
No 62 (22.5) 214 (77.5) 2.63 1.85–3.76 <0.001
 Country of origin Australia 136 (35.7) 245 (64.3) 1   
Other 77 (31.2) 170 (68.8) 1.23 0.87–1.72 0.24
 Education Secondary or less 96 (39.8) 154 (60.2) 1   0.04
Trade/apprentice/certificate 19 (32.4) 165 (67.6) 1.38 0.95–2.01 0.09
Bachelor or higher 37 (27.6) 97 (72.4) 1.74 1.10–2.74 0.02
 Occupation Management/admin 35 (35.7) 63 (64.3) 1   
Professional 49 (29.2) 119 (70.8) 1.35 0.79–2.29 0.27
Blue collar 29 (30.9) 65 (69.1) 1.25 0.68–2.27 0.48
Clerical/sales/service/other 52 (36.1) 92 (63.9) 0.98 0.58–1.68 0.95
Not in workforce 46 (39.7) 70 (60.3) 0.86 0.49–1.47 0.55
Other social support for walking
 Social support from family to go walking in past month Poor 97 (45.5) 116 (54.5) 1   
Average/Good 110 (28.1) 281 (71.9) 2.14 1.51–3.03 <0.001
 Social support from friends to go walking in past month Poor 179 (35.4) 326 (64.6) 1   
Average/Good 28 (28.3) 71 (71.7) 1.39 0.87–2.24 0.17
  1. values in bold if 0.05 or less