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Table 1 Univariable associations with perceived dog encouragement to walk in 629 dog owners in RESIDE Study, Perth, Western Australia (Sep 2003-Mar 2005)

From: Understanding how dogs encourage and motivate walking: cross-sectional findings from RESIDE

Variable   Less than very often (<3pwk)
N (%)
Very often (3 + pwk)
N (%)
OR 95 % CI P
Dog-related factors
 Number of dogs owned Single 263 (56.4) 203 (43.6) 1   
Multiple 75 (51.4) 71 (48.6) 1.23 0.85–1.78 0.28
 Dog size Small 153 (62.4) 92 (37.6) 1   
Medium/large 181 (50.0) 181 (50.0) 1.66 1.20–2.32 0.002
 Level of attachment to dog Medium/low 77 (74.8) 26 (25.2) 1   
High 261 (51.3) 248 (48.7) 2.81 1.75–4.54 <0.001
 Spouse/partner main person in household who walks with dog Yes 64 (66.7) 32 (33.3) 1   
No 274 (53.1) 242 (46.9) 1.77 1.12–2.79 0.02
 Child main person in household who walks with dog Yes 42 (77.8) 12 (22.2) 1   
No 296 (53.0) 262 (47.0) 3.10 1.60–6.01 <0.001
 Owns an overweight dog Yes 38 (58.0) 42 (42.0) 1   
No 271 (54.4) 227 (45.6) 1.16 0.75–1.79 0.51
 Affected by poor health or age of dog Yes 148 (56.7) 113 (43.3) 1   
No 186 (53.8) 160 (46.2) 1.13 0.82–1.56 0.47
 Perceived access to Public Open Space with dog-supportive features Poor 92 (51.7) 86 (48.3) 1   
Good/Average 246 (56.8) 187 (43.2) 0.81 0.57–1.15 0.25
 Park within 1.6 km of home with dog-supportive features No 288 (55.9) 227 (44.1) 1   
Yes 50 (51.5) 47 (48.5) 1.19 0.77–1.84 0.43
Cognitive factors
 Subjective norm of family, other owners and veterinarian to walking with dog daily Neutral/Negative 276 (57.9) 201 (42.1) 1   
Positive 59 (45.7) 70 (54.3) 1.63 1.10–2.41 0.01
 Perceived dog-specific barriers to walking with dog daily Ambivalent-Likely to discourage 154 (48.6) 163 (51.4) 1   
Unlikely to discourage 180 (62.1) 110 (37.9) 1.73 1.25–2.39 0.001
 Knowing dog enjoys going for a walk Ambivalent-Unlikely motivation to walk with dog daily 146 (67.6) 70 (32.4) 1   
Likely motivation to walk with dog daily 188 (48.1) 203 (51.9) 2.25 1.59–3.19 <0.001
 I feel safe when walking with my dogs Ambivalent-Unlikely motivation to walk with dog daily 236 (57.4) 175 (42.6) 1   
Likely motivation to walk with dog daily 98 (50.0) 98 (50.0) 1.35 1.06–2.1.90 0.09
 Perceived dog-specific behavioural outcomes from walking with dog daily Ambivalent-Unlikely result in positive outcomes 214 (55.6) 171 (44.4) 1   
Likely positive outcomes 117 (53.7) 101 (46.3) 1.08 0.77–1.51 0.65
 Keep dog healthy Ambivalent-Unlikely outcome of walking with dog daily 80 (77.7) 23 (22.3) 1   
Likely outcomes of walking with dog daily 251 (50.2) 249 (49.8) 3.45 2.10–5.67 <0.001
 Reduce the risk of dog barking Ambivalent-Unlikely outcome of walking with dog daily 283 (56.4) 219 (43.6) 1   
Likely outcomes of walking with dog daily 48 (47.5) 53 (52.5) 1.43 0.93–2.19 0.10
 Dog might attack other dogs or people Ambivalent-Likely outcome of walking with dog daily 233 (53.2) 196 (46.8) 1   
Unlikely outcome of walking with dog daily 108 (58.7) 76 (42.3) 1.25 0.88–1.77 0.21
Owner demographic factors
 Gender Male 129 (60.6) 84 (39.4) 1   
Female 206 (52.3) 188 (47.7) 1.40 1.00–1.97 0.05
 Age Mean (SD) years 40.8 (10.6) 42.2 (11.4) 1.01 1.00–1.03 0.13
 Children at home <18 years Yes 206 (63.0) 121 (37.0) 1   
No 122 (45.4) 147 (54.6) 2.05 1.48–2.85 <0.001
 Country of origin Australia 214 (57.5) 158 (42.5) 1   
Other 123 (51.5) 116 (48.5) 1.27 0.92–1.77 0.14
 Education Secondary or less 138 (59.0) 96 (41.0) 1   0.24
Trade/apprentice/certificate 128 (54.2) 108 (45.8) 1.21 0.84–1.75 0.30
Bachelor or higher 66 (50.0) 66 (50.0) 1.44 0.94–2.21 0.10
 Occupation Management/admin 47 (51.1) 45 (48.9) 1   0.83
Professional 89 (53.6) 77 (46.4) 0.90 0.54–1.51 0.70
Blue collar 54 (58.7) 38 (41.3) 0.74 0.41–1.32 0.30
Clerical/sales/service/other 78 (55.7) 62 (44.3) 0.83 0.49–1.41 0.49
Not in workforce 65 (57.5) 48 (42.5) 0.77 0.44–1.34 0.36
Other social support for walking
 Social support from family to go walking in past month Poor 135 (63.4) 78 (36.6) 1   
Average/Good 201 (51.4) 190 (48.6) 1.64 1.16–2.30 0.01
 Social support from friends to go walking in past month Poor 287 (56.8) 218 (43.2) 1   
Average/Good 49 (49.5) 50 (50.5) 1.34 0.87–2.07 0.18
  1. values in bold if 0.05 or less