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Table 1 Sample characteristics by dog walking status across study sites

From: The association between dog walking, physical activity and owner’s perceptions of safety: cross-sectional evidence from the US and Australia

  TOTAL (n = 1113) San Diego (n = 276) Portland (n = 233) Nashville (n = 296) Perth (n = 308)
Non-dog walker1 (n = 490) % Dog walker (n = 623) % Non-dog walker1 (n = 134) % Dog walker (n = 142) % Non-dog walker1 (n = 110) % Dog walker (n = 123) % Non-dog walker1 (n = 141) % Dog walker (n = 155) % Non-dog walker1 (n = 105) % Dog walker (n = 203) %
Age group2 p = 0.124   p = 0.194   p = 0.127   p = 0.166   p = 0.508  
 18–29 years 17.6 17.0 29.9 26.8 10.9 8.9 9.9 15.5 19.0 16.3
 30–39 years 18.4 21.3 24.6 25.4 20.9 31.7 20.6 25.2 4.8 9.4
 40–49 years 24.7 20.2 13.4 16.2 33.6 23.6 34.0 23.2 17.1 18.7
 50–59 years 17.1 22.0 12.7 20.4 15.5 18.7 14.2 18.7 28.6 27.6
 60+ years 20.8 18.6 19.4 11.3 16.4 17.1 19.1 14.2 29.5 28.1
Male p = 0.758   p = 0.381   p = 0.243   p = 0.177   p = 0.356  
  46.5 47.4 44.0 49.3 49.1 41.5 41.8 49.7 53.3 47.8
Highest education level3 p = 0.102   p = 0.182   p = 0.771   p = 0.046*   p = 0.607  
 Secondary or less 35.1 29.9 33.6 25.4 26.4 29.3 36.2 21.3 44.8 39.9
 Vocational training 22.0 25.7 26.9 28.2 21.8 26.8 18.4 21.3 21.0 26.6
 Bachelor degree or higher 38.0 41.6 32.1 43.0 49.1 40.7 39.7 53.5 31.4 32.0
 Other 2.9 1.8 3.0 2.1 1.8 2.4 4.3 2.6 1.9 0.5
Ethnicity (US only)4 p = 0.374   p = 0.087   p = 0.149   p = 0.674   - -
 White/Caucasion 70.6 75.2 49.3 64.1 88.2 86.2 77.3 76.8   
 Hispanic or Latino Descent 14.5 9.5 35.8 21.8 1.8 4.9 4.3 1.9   
 Black/African American 7.5 8.3 6.0 6.3 3.6 0.0 12.1 16.8   
 Asian 2.3 2.3 4.5 2.1 0.9 2.4 1.4 1.3   
 Other 3.4 3.4 3.0 4.9 3.6 2.4 3.5 1.9   
Country of birth (Australia only)5 -   -   -   -   p = 0.258  
 Australia          70.5 64.0
 Overseas          29.5 36.0
Number of children living in household6 p = 0.277   p = 0.466   p = 0.608   p = 0.387   p = 0.079  
 None 59.0 61.2 55.2 55.6 53.6 61.8 61.0 62.6 66.7 63.5
 One 14.9 17.0 14.9 21.1 15.5 9.8 19.1 18.7 8.6 17.2
 Two 16.1 15.2 17.2 12.7 20.0 19.5 12.8 14.2 15.2 15.3
 Three or more 9.2 6.1 11.9 10.6 9.1 8.1 7.1 3.2 8.6 3.9
Time lived in neighborhood p = 0.262   p = 0.671   p = 0.642   p = 0.275   p = 0.084  
 1–3 years 16.7 17.0 24.6 21.8 18.2 13.0 14.9 21.9 7.6 12.3
 4–9 years 18.8 24.2 18.7 26.1 22.7 31.1 22.0 23.2 10.5 20.2
 10–14 years 21.0 19.1 19.4 19.0 20.9 17.9 17.0 14.8 28.6 23.2
 15–20 years 13.7 12.7 9.7 7.7 12.7 12.2 13.5 16.8 20.0 13.3
 More than 20 years 29.8 27.0 27.6 25.4 25.5 26.8 32.6 23.2 33.3 31.0
Housing types7 p = 0.066   p = 0.407   p = 0.113   p = 0.007*   p = 0.422  
 House 88.6 85.9 82.1 79.6 95.5 87.0 90.1 82.6 87.6 92.1
 Duplex 4.3 2.7 2.2 4.9 2.7 1.6 6.4 2.6 5.7 2.0
 Townhouse or villa 3.1 4.0 8.2 4.2 0.0 1.6 0.0 5.2 3.8 4.4
 Apartment or flat 2.9 5.1 6.0 9.2 0.9 4.9 2.1 7.1 1.9 1.0
 Other 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.4 0.9 3.3 1.4 1.3 1.0 0.5
  1. *p ≤ 0.05; 1Reference group; Missing data: 212; 317; 414; 67; 75; 5 For Australia country of birth measure typically used (rather than ethnicity)