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Table 4 Factors associated with physical activity in oil-producing countries of the Arabian Peninsula (Behavioural epidemiology framework, Phase 4)

From: A systematic review of physical activity and sedentary behaviour research in the oil-producing countries of the Arabian Peninsula

Correlate Association References
Demographic
 Age Al-Hazzaa, 2007 [76] 3; Al-Hazzaa HM [80] 3; Al-Nozha, 2007 [39] 2, 3; Al-Sobayel, 2015 [87]; Amin, 2012 [89]; Amin, 2011 [90]; Mabry, 2012 [70] (women only) 3
  + Mabry, 2012 [70] (men only)
 Gender (male) + Al-Hazzaa, 2007 [76]; Al-Hazzaa, 2014 [86] 3; Al-Nozha, 2007 [39]; Al-Sobayel, 2015 [87]; Amin, 2012 [89]; Amin, 2011 [90]; Duncan, 2015 [88]
 Education Al-Hazzaa, 2007 [76]; Almajwal, 2015 [91] 2; Amin, 2011 [90]; Mabry, 2012 [70] (men only)
 Marital Status (married) + Almajwal, 2015 [91]; Al-Nozha, 2007 [39]; Mabry, 2012 [70] (men only)
  Khalaf, 2013 [161] (women only)
 Employment (employed) + Mabry, 2012 [70]
Intrapersonal
 Lack of time Al-Hazzaa, 2014 [86]; Al-Rafaee, 2001 [118]; Al-Otaibi, 2013 [75]; Ali, 2010 (Q) [18]; Ali, 2008 (Q) [119]; Alsubaie, 2015 [94]; Awadalla, 2014 [72] 3; Berger, 2009 (Q) [120]; Daradkeh, 2015 [95]; Hashim, 2013 [121]; Gawwad, 2008 [73]; Mabry, 2013 (Q) [17]; Musaiger, 2014 [122]; Serour, 2007 [123]; Youssef [74]
 Self-motivation Al-Rafaee, 2001 [118]; AlQuaiz, 2009 [71]; Alsubaie, 2015 [94]; Awadalla, 2014 [72]; Berger, 2009 (Q) [120]; Mabry, 2013 (Q) [17]; Youssef [74]
 Perceived health AboZaid, 2010 [165]; Al-Rafaee, 2001 [118]; Alsubaie, 2015 [94]; Awadalla, 2014 [72]; Serour, 2007 [123]
 Limited knowledge/awareness Ali, 2008 (Q) [119]; Daradkeh, 2015 [95]; Taha, 2008 [166]
 Consumption of fruits + Al-Hazzaa, 2014 [86]; Al-Kahtani, 2015 [66]; Al-Sobayel, 2015 [87]; Duncan, 2015 [88]
 Consumption of foods high in fats/salt/sugar + Al-Hazzaa, 2014 [86]; Al-Sobayel, 2015 [87]; Duncan, 2015 [88]; Faris, 2015 [167]
 Knowledge PA is important + Donnelly, 2012 (Q) [92]; Sulaiman, 2009 (Q) [93]
 Perceived skills/fitness Awadalla, 2014 [72]; Gawwad, 2008 [73]
 Enhance appearance/muscles + Alsubaie, 2015 [94]; Daradkeh, 2015 [95]
 Consumption of milk + Al-Hazzaa, 2014 [86]; Al-Sobayel, 2015 [87]
 Consumption of vegetables + Al-Hazzaa, 2014 [86]; Al-Sobayel, 2015 [87]
 Belief in Overweight as normal Ali, 2008 (Q) [119]
 Attitude to changing diet Ali, 2008 (Q) [119]
 Self efficacy + Al-Eisa, 2012 [63]
 Locus of control Al-Otaibi, 2013 [75]
 Stage of change + Al-Otaibi, 2013 [75]
 Fear of criticism AboZaid, 2010 [165]
 Maintain health + Daradkeh, 2015 [95]
 Shift duty Almajwal, 2015 [91]
Social and cultural
 Norms limiting women’s mobility Amin, 2010 [90]; Berger, 2009 (Q) [120]; Mabry, 2013 (Q) [17]; Sulaiman, 2009 (Q) [93]
 Norms prioritizing women’s care-taking role/limiting self-care role Donnelly, 2012 (Q) [92]; Sulaiman, 2009 (Q) [93]
 Social support Al-Otaibi, 2013 [75]; AlQuaiz, 2009 [71]; Alsubaie, 2015 [94]; Awadalla, 2014 [72]; Amin, 2010 [90]; Donnelly, 2012 (Q) [92]
 Low value of PA Ali, 2008 (Q) [119]; Awadalla, 2014 [72]; Mabry, 2013 (Q) [17]
 Norms promoting overeating Ali, 2008 (Q) [119]
 Lack of role models   Berger, 2009 (Q) [120]
Physical Environment
 Availability of physical activity facilities Al-Rafaee, 2001 [118]; Alsubaie, 2015 [94]; Awadalla, 2014 [72]; Ali, 2010 (Q) [18]; Ali, 2008 (Q) [119]; AlQuaiz, 2009 [71]; Amin, 2010 [90]; Donnelly, 2012 (Q) [92]; Mabry, 2013 (Q) [17]
 Weather Ali, 2008 (Q) [119]; Ali, 2010 (Q) [18]; Amin, 2010 [90]; Berger, 2009 (Q) [120] Mabry, 2013 (Q) [17]; Musaiger, 2014 [122]; Sulaiman, 2009 (Q) [93]
 Safety Ali, 2008 (Q) [119]
 Transportation + Al-Kahtani, 2015 [66];
Population Policy Level
 Ineffective health communication Ali, 2008 (Q) [119]; Mabry, 2013 (Q) [17]
 Limited resources (general) allocated for physical activity promotion Mabry, 2013 (Q) [17]
 Ineffective PA-supportive policies in colleges Berger, 2009 (Q) [120]
Individual-based Policy Level
 Lack of Time Al-Doghether, 2007 [127]; Al-Ghawi, 2009 [128]
 Health personnel limited knowledge/awareness of benefits of PA Al-Doghether, 2007 [127]
 Limited material resources in health centres (teaching materials, guidelines) Al-Ghawi, 2009 [128]; Ali, 2008 (Q) [119]
 Lack of specialty clinics at primary health care level Al-Ghawi, 2009 [128]
 Limited availability of human resources (i.e., dietitians) Ali, 2008 (Q) [119]
  1. Studies for the demographic correlates included population-based surveys that aimed to include a representative sample and used standard measures for physical activity; all other studies were cross-sectional studies using various methodologies except those marked Q to denote qualitative studies
  2. Super-script number (s)−cross referencing to additional table (s) article in which article is included