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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the COURAGE study sample, stratified by depression status, and by country

From: The role of socio-economic status in depression: results from the COURAGE (aging survey in Europe)

  Finland (%) Poland (%) Spain (%)
Depressed
(n = 80)
Non-Depressed
(n = 1854)
p Depressed
(n = 214)
Non-Depressed
(n = 3726)
p Depressed
(n = 510)
Non-Depressed
(n = 4073)
p
Sex
 Male 21.1 49.2 ≤0.001 36.2 48.0 0.054 31.0 51.1 ≤ 0.001
Age Group    0.21    0.04    ≤0.0001
 18–39 41.8 32.1   26.7 42.0   21.8 38.2  
 40–64 42.1 45.2   50.0 40.9   50.1 41.9  
 65+ 16.1 22.7   23.3 17.1   28.1 19.9  
Marital Status    ≤ 0.001    0.004    ≤ 0.001
 Single 31 25   23 17   21 28  
 Married/Cohabiting 38 60   49 65   45 58  
 Divorced/Widowed 31 15   28 13   34 14  
No. Yrs Education          
 mean ± SD 12.09 ± 3.8 12.2 ± 4.1 0.819 11.05 ± 3.9 11.75 ± 3.7 0.009 8.27 ± 5.7 10.9 ± 5.6 ≤ 0.001
Income Quintiles    ≤ 0.001    0.004    ≤ 0.001
 1 (Poorest) 25.2 22.6   38.2 22.9   12.4 23.5  
 2 (Poorer) 31.3 15.2   18.1 13.7   32.5 14.7  
 3 (Middle) 19.3 18.1   11.1 13.8   24.2 19.6  
 4 (Rich) 14.9 27.9   10.8 22.3   18.2 23.3  
 5 (Richest) 9.2 16.2   21.9 27.2   12.7 18.9  
SES Index          
 (0–110) 31.9 ± 22.0 38.7 ± 25.5 ≤ 0.02 27.4 ± 23.6 34.9 ± 24.2 ≤ 0.001 23.3 ± 21.5 32.6 ± 26.2 ≤ 0.001