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Table 3 Individual compositional and contextual factors associated with cigarette smoking status among people living with HIV identified by multivariable multilevel logistic regression models, Demographic and Health Surveys data, 2003–2012

From: Influence of socioeconomic position and gender on current cigarette smoking among people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: disentangling context from composition

  Model 1aOR (95 % CrI) Model 2bOR (95 % CrI) Model 3cOR (95 % CrI) Model 4dOR (95 % CrI) Model 5eOR (95 % CrI)
Fixed-effect      
Individual-level factors      
 Male (vs female)   59.06 (48.27, 75.98)    62.49 (45.93, 78.28)
Age (completed years)      
 18–24   1 (reference)    1 (reference)
 25–34   1.94 (1.69, 2.23)    1.95 (1.65, 2.22)
 35–44   1.64 (1.39, 1.92)    1.64 (1.37, 1.90)
 45+   1.29 (1.08, 1.53)    1.30 (1.06, 1.51)
Education      
 No education   0.98 ((0.86, 1.11)    1.09 (0.95, 1.24)
 Primary   1.34 (1.21, 1.50)    1.38 (1.24, 1.53)
Secondary or higher   1 (reference)    1 (reference)
Wealth index      
 Poorer   1.21 (1.09, 1.35)    1.62 (1.38, 1.90)
 Middle   1.09 (0.97, 1.20)    1.29 (1.12, 1.46)
 Richer   1 (reference)    1 (reference)
 Current (vs not) working   1.31 (1.14, 1.49)    1.27 (1.11, 1.46)
 Never (vs currently) married   1.00 (0.88, 1.12)    1.02 (0.90, 1.14)
Neighbourhood-level factors      
 Urban (vs rural)    1.21 (1.04, 1.42)   1.24 (1.09, 1.41)
 Low (vs high) poverty rate    0.64 (0.52, 0.76)   1.25 (1.09, 1.43)
 Low (vs high) illiteracy rate    0.82 (0.71, 0.95)   1.28 (1.14, 1.42)
 Low (vs high) unemployment rate    0.84 (0.75, 0.95)   1.11 (1.01, 1.43)
Country-level factors      
 Low (vs high) rural population     1.17 (0.84, 1.67) 1.23 (0.83, 1.77)
 Low (vs high) intensity of deprivation     1.94 (1.44, 2.98) 1.53 (1.08, 1.96)
Random effects      
Country-level      
 Variance (95 CrI) 0.18 (0.07, 0.40) 0.19 (0.08, 0.42) 0.14 (0.05, 0.31) 0.10 (0.03, 0.26) 0.20 (0.08, 0.45)
 VPC (%) 3.4 (1.45, 7.0) 5.5 (2.4, 11.2) 2.6 (1.1, 5.2) 1.9 (0.6, 4.5) 5.8 (2.3, 11.8)
 MOR (%, 95 % CrI) 1.50 (1.29, 1.85) 1.52 (1.31, 1.85) 1.43 (1.25, 5.17) 1.36 (1.18, 1.63) 1.54 (1.31, 1.90)
 Explained variation (%)   −61.7 23.5 44.1 54.7
Neighbourhood-level      
 Variance (95 CrI) 1.96 (1.70, 2.23) 0.01 (0.00, 0.02) 2.06 (1.81, 2.33) 1.99 (1.71, 2.28) 0.02 (0.01, 0.07)
 VPC (%, 95 % CrI) 39.4 (35.1, 44.5) 5.8 (2.5, 11.6) 10.1 (36.2, 44.5) 38.9 (34.6, 43.6) 6.4 (2.5, 13.5)
 MOR (%, 95 % CrI) 3.80 (3.47, 4.15) 1.10 (1.06, 1.13) 3.93 (3.62, 4.29) 3.84 (3.48, 4.22) 1.14 (1.08, 1.27)
 Explained variation (%)   85.3 74.4 1.3 83.8
Model fit statistics      
 DIC 18,237 14,988 18,160 18,231 14,931
Sample size      
 Country-level 19 19 19 19 19
 Neighbourhood-level 7,054 7,052 7,054 7,054 7,052
 Individual-level 31,270 31,255 31,270 31,270 31,255
  1. OR odds ratio, CrI credible interval, MOR median odds ratio, VPC variance partition coefficient, DIC Bayesian Deviance Information Criteria
  2. aModel 1 – empty null model, baseline model without any explanatory variables (unconditional model)
  3. bModel 2 – adjusted for only individual-level factors
  4. cModel 3 – adjusted for only neighbourhood-level factors
  5. dModel 4 – adjusted for only country-level factors
  6. eModel 5 – adjusted for individual-, neighbourhood-, and country-level factors (full model)