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Table 2 Ordinary least squares regression of health literacy score on demographic, socioeconomic resources, & social resources (Weighted)a

From: Examining health literacy disparities in the United States: a third look at the National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL)

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5
Demographic
  Age −0.567*** −0.569*** −0.472*** −0.493*** −0.518***
(−0.230) (−0.230) (−0.191) (−0.200) (−0.210)
  Female 4.713*** 6.583*** 5.968*** 5.281*** 4.924***
(0.056) (0.079) (0.071) (0.063) (0.059)
  African American −25.90*** −17.02*** −16.31*** −16.52*** −16.48***
(−0.195) (−0.128) (−0.123) (−0.124) (−0.124)
  Foreign Born Hispanic/Latino −44.49*** −33.59*** −27.96*** −22.22*** −11.45***
(−0.279) (−0.211) (−0.176) (−0.139) (−0.072)
  Native Born Hispanic/Latino −18.36*** −10.85*** −9.265*** −9.534*** −5.620*
(−0.092) (−0.054) (−0.046) (−0.048) (−0.028)
  Asian/Pacific Islander −8.776* −8.474* −12.78*** −9.313** −3.665
(−0.037) (−0.036) (−0.054) (−0.039) (−0.015)
  American Indian/Alaskan Native −22.58** −12.00 −11.36 −11.76 −10.43
(−0.045) (−0.024) (−0.023) (−0.024) (−0.021)
  Multiracial −13.04** −8.315* −7.476* −7.571* −7.265+
(−0.037) (−0.024) (−0.021) (−0.022) (−0.021)
Socioeconomic Resources
  Median Household Income (in $1000)   0.248*** 0.131*** 0.116*** 0.108***
  (0.219) (0.116) (0.103) (0.095)
  Income From Savings/Investments   6.391*** 3.517*** 3.011*** 3.053***
  (0.125) (0.069) (0.059) (0.060)
  Educational Attainment    3.810*** 3.318*** 3.281***
   (0.264) (0.230) (0.227)
  Nam Powers Boyd Occupational Score    0.0663*** 0.0481* 0.0465*
   (0.055) (0.040) (0.039)
Relational Social Class
  Employed     1.757 1.437
    (0.020) (0.016)
 Voted in 2000
  Not a Citizen     −9.106*** −2.797
    (−0.059) (−0.018)
  Did Not Vote     −3.925** −3.567**
    (−0.043) (−0.039)
  Do Not Remember     −1.728 −1.231
    (−0.008) (−0.005)
 Current Aff/Pol/Govt. Info     1.523+ 0.704
    (0.019) (0.009)
Library Use
  Frequent Library Use     4.118** 4.098**
    (0.046) (0.046)
  Occasional Library Use     5.983*** 5.642***
    (0.067) (0.063)
Volunteer Activity
  Frequently Volunteer     3.412* 3.200+
    (0.031) (0.029)
  Occasionally Volunteer     2.238 1.820
    (0.022) (0.018)
Social Resources
 Language Spoken      
  Spanish/ESL      −5.824+
     (−0.025)
  Speaks Only Spanish      −9.885*
     (−0.051)
  Other Language Spoken ESL      −19.11***
     (−0.121)
 Marital Status
  Never Married      −3.574**
     (−0.034)
  Separated/Divorced/Widowed      −0.780
     (−0.007)
 Health Information Source      0.929
     (0.017)
  Constant 274.6*** 253.9*** 232.2*** 230.3*** 233.8***
  R-squared 0.136 0.213 0.270 0.279 0.286
  F 101.4*** 231.9*** 252.2*** 160.3*** 126.1***
  1. aSource: The National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) 2003. Unstandardized coefficients above standardized coefficients in parentheses. Respondent N = 14,592. + p < 0.05 * p < 0.01 ** p < 0.001 *** p < 0.0001