Skip to main content

Table 1 Descriptive statistics by communities and for the total sample, 2013

From: Risk factors for children’s blood lead levels in metal mining and smelting communities in Armenia: a cross-sectional study

Variables %, mean, range, SD Alaverdi (SSa = 69) Akhtala (SS = 37) Yerevan (SS = 53) Total (SS = 159)
Children involved in the study % 43.4 23.3 33.3 100.0
BLL above 5 μg/dl % 72.5 83.8 52.8 68.6
GM of BLL Mean ± SD 6.4 ± 3.1 6.8 ± 3.2 5.1 ± 2.4 6.0 ± 3.0
Range 3.5–24.0 3.6–15.5 1.6–11.7 1.6–24.0
Caregivers’ age Mean ± SD 31.8 ± 8.43 32.14 ± 7.23 33.06 ± 8.17 32.3 ± 8.1
Caregiver’s education: higher versus lower Higher % 18.8 24.3 35.85 25.8
Caregivers’ marital status: married versus widowed Married % 97.1 94.6 96.2 96.2
Caregivers’ employment status Employed % 21.7 10.8 35.6 23.9
Children’s sex Female % 46.4 48.6 48.1 47.5
Child’s age in years Mean ± SD 5.2 ± 0.76 5.51 ± 0.83 5.35 ± 0.99 5.3 ± 0.9
Child nutrition % score Mean ± SD 50.96 ± 15.64 49.22 ± 13.75 49.53 ± 15.56 50.0 ± 15.1
Stunting in children Yes % 9.4 19.4 10.6 12.2
Child plays with soil in yards, play grounds or gardens in warm seasons Yes % 79.1 75.7 69.2 75.0
Hours spent in yards, playgrounds or gardens daily in warm season Mean ± SD 3.3 ± 2.8 4.1 ± 2.9 2.6 ± 2.8 3.3 ± 2.8
Frequency of child washing hands after coming home: always versus not always Always % 89.9 66.7 90.4 84.7
Frequency of child washing hands before eating: always versus not always Always % 67.6 56.8 63.5 63.7
Child’s behavior of biting nails Yes % 17.4 21.6 13.5 17.1
Child’s hygiene score Mean ± SD 1.74 ± 0.68 1.44 ± 0.84 1.67 ± 0.59 1.7 ± 0.7
Household living standard % score Mean ± SD 35.9 ± 13.3 30.4 40.7 ± 14.3 36.3 ± 14.3
Household size Mean ± SD 4.97 ± 1.14 5.03 ± 1.46 5.51 ± 1.40 5.2 ± 1.3
Housing typeb: flat or house Flat % 89.9 70.3 45.3 70.4
Housing floorb: first versus higher floor First floor % 34.8 56.8 58.5 47.8
Type of windows: new versus old New % 13.0 18.9 41.5 23.9
Daily mean duration of opening the windows in summer -in hours Mean ± SD 14.80 ± 6.11 17.76 ± 7.35 19.12 ± 7.50 16.9 ± 7.1
Having carpet on the floor Always % 56.5 54.1 50.9 54.1
Seasonal % 34.8 29.7 34 33.3
Never % 8.7 16.2 15.1 12.6
Duration of occupying the current flat/house in years Mean ± SD 8.7 ± 8.6 7.9 ± 7.4 9.5 ± 8.5 8.8 ± 8.3
Number of current smokers in the family Mean ± SD 1.1 ± 0.6 0.9 ± 0.6 1.3 ± 0.8 1.1 ± 0.7
Smoking in the presence of the child Yes % 55.9 85.7 76.1 69.2
Having a family member working in a processing facility, mine or smelter compared to not having any Yes % 29.0 58.3 0 25.9
Number of family members working in a processing facility, mine or smelter Mean ± SD 0.4 ± 0.6 0.6 ± 0.6 0 ± 0 0.3 ± 0.5
Caregiver’s knowledge % score Mean ± SD 53.6 ± 17.7 58.8 ± 19.1 42.2 ± 18.1 52.3 ± 18.6
Frequency of parents changing clothes/shoes before coming from processing facility, mine or smelter Always % 85.0 71.4 100 78.0
Not always % 15.0 28.6 0 22.0
Household hygiene % score Mean ± SD 67.4 ± 13.1 68.4 ± 13.7 74.6 ± 12.9 70.4 ± 13.5
Frequency of furniture dustingc: daily versus less than daily Daily % 92.6 83.8 98.1 92.4
Housing distance from the toxic source(s) Closer % 59.4 56.8 64.2 60.4
Farther % 40.6 43.2 35.8 39.6
Midpoint distance from the toxic source Closer 640 846 3 516  
(meters) Farther 1 318d 849d 5 493  
  1. a Sample size
  2. b House is defined as a stand-alone building that consists of one or two floors. A total of 12 out of 47 houses had two floors. Flats are apartments in multi-floor buildings. When calculating the variable of living on the first floor or higher floors the houses with second floor were included in the category of first floor
  3. c When the individual questions of the Household protective hygiene % score were analyzed only the variable of dusting furniture was statistically significantly associated with BLL. Therefore, it is presented in descriptive statistics and regression analysis
  4. d This section was considered to have less exposure because apart from being located slightly farther from the toxic sources it was also located above the gorge on top of the hill as opposed to the closer section which was in the gorge