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Table 2 Estimate of the parameters from the proportional Cox Hazard Model

From: Comparison of under-five mortality for 2000, 2005 and 2011 surveys in Ethiopia

Predictors Hazard ratio Hazard ratios difference
2000 VS 2011 2005 Vs 2011 2000 Vs 2005
2000 2005 2011 95 % CI 95 % CI 95 % CI
Lower Upper Lower Upper Lower Upper
Current age of respondent 2.95* 1.01* 0.95* 1.32 2.99** 0.02 0.61** 1.77 1.97**
Age at first birth 1.15* 1.16* 1.05* 0.26 0.77** 0.07 0.28** 0.96 1.00
Age at first sex 1.63 1.01 0.89* 0.75 1.05 0.16 0.42 0.73 0.98
Region (Ref. Oromiya)
 Tigray 5.10 4.96 1.17 1.88 4.26** 3.12 5.05** 0.08 0.77
 Affar 2.54 2.58 0.82* 0.74 2.67 1.08 2.63** 0.80 1.74**
 Amhara 2.88* 2.34* 1.03 1.25 2.96** 0.95 2.08 0.23 0.87**
 Somali 1.97 2.46 0.78* 1.29 2.02** 1.03 2.75** 1.20 2.70
 Benishangul-Gumz 2.70 2.20 0.93 1.32 3.41** 1.08 3.45** 0.18 0.58**
 SNNP 2.79 2.37 0.92 1.92 2.68 1.05 2.81** 0.26 0.89**
 Gambela 2.76 2.24 1.07 1.02 2.53** 1.67 2.83 0.41 1.12
 Harari 3.22 2.49 1.13 1.46 3.51** 1.14 2.82** 0.62 0.92**
 Addis Ababa 0.96 0.76 0.70 0.17 0.72** 0.04 0.52** 0.07 0.56**
 Dire Dawa 2.87 2.51 0.91 0.91 1.24 1.11 1.51** 0.23 0.62**
Place of residence (Ref. Urban)
 Rural 1.05 0.98 1.19* 0.68 1.12 0.14 0.69** 0.03 0.69**
Highest educational level (Ref. Higher)
 No education 2.85* 2.31* 0.79* 2.03 3.08** 1.13 1.91** 0.36 0.92**
 Primary 2.91 2.53* 0.82* 2.05 2.85** 0.94 1.42 0.15 0.71**
 Secondary 2.93* 2.85 0.87* 2.00 2.78** 1.27 2.07** 0.17 0.86
Religion (Ref. Orthodox)
 Muslim 1.76 1.06 1.10* 0.37 0.68** 0.18 0.57 0.21 0.58
 Catholic 1.85 1.21 1.01* 1.06 1.39 0.40 0.62 0.15 1.19
 Protestant 1.76 0.96 1.09 1.12 1.48 0.26 0.70 0.19 1.34
 Traditional 1.55 1.07 0.88 1.15 1.53 0.17 0.79 0.20 0.89**
 Other 1.52 1.79 1.71* 0.99 1.44 0.23 0.66 0.19 0.92**
Family size 3.93 1.35 0.99* 2.02 3.84** 0.18 0.88** 1.20 2.28
No of Under five children 1.53 0.99 1.68* 0.54 0.99** 0.58 1.21 0.31 0.88**
Children ever born 1.07* 1.04 1.06* 0.01 0.15** 0.29 0.87 0.07 0.78
Birth in the last five years 3.83* 1.32 1.03 2.00 3.96** 0.17 0.38 1.38 2.73**
Currently pregnant (Ref. No)
 Yes 0.98 1.03 1.06 0.14 0.82 0.09 0.21 0.03 0.65
Type of birth (Ref. Single birth)
 1st of multiple 0.56* 0.79 1.18 0.52 1.43 0.35 0.91** 0.81 0.85
 2nd of multiple 1.05 1.14 2.00 0.50 1.56 0.15 0.79 0.04 0.56**
 3rd of multiple 1.39 1.38* 0.56* 0.48 0.85** 0.74 1.10 0.06 0.25
Sex of the child (Ref. Female)
 Male 1.08 1.19 1.09* 0.01 0.34** 0.04 0.33** 0.07 0.28**
Toilet facility (Ref. Pit latrine)
 Flush toilet 3.92 0.73 1.13 0.37 1.94 0.59 1.27 2.03 3.10
 No facility 1.02 0.92 1.01 0.48 1.98 0.16 2.01 0.63 0.72
Type of fuel (Ref. Charcoal/wood etc.)
 Electricity 1.10 2.19 2.16* 0.77 1.23 0.24 0.84 0.81 1.22
 Gas/LPG 0.43* 0.39* 1.35 0.44 0.84 0.40 0.89 0.01 0.37**
 No food cooked 1.13 1.01 0.63 0.99 1.09 0.35 1.12 0.18 0.74
Floor material (Ref. Carpet)
 Cement 1.05 0.73 1.12 0.20 1.43 0.30 2.06 0.65 1.24
 Natural floor 1.15 0.92 0.94 0.03 1.93 0.95 2.37 0.57 1.17
 Wood/ceramics 1.56* 0.63 0.77 0.83 1.02 0.62 1.09 0.49 1.10
Roof material (Ref. Thatch/Plastic/wood)
 Finished roofing 1.15 0.93 1.00 0.69 1.04 0.73 1.42 0.28 0.83
 No roof 1.56 0.95 0.99 0.04 1.99 0.20 1.72 0.74 1.26
Wall material (Ref. Finished walls)
 No walls 1.06 0.93 0.82 0.98 1.33 0.58 1.28 0.25 0.69
 Cane/bamboo/wood 0.99 1.04 0.81* 0.80 1.96 0.92 1.80 0.11 0.25
  1. * Significant at 5 % level of significance
  2. **Significant interaction effects