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Table 2 Association of education and wealth with risk factors of noncommunicable diseases by site, age 25–45 years, Ghana (N = 438), South Africa (N = 484), Jamaica (N = 323), Seychelles (N = 438), United States (N = 448)

From: The social patterning of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases in five countries: evidence from the modeling the epidemiologic transition study (METS)

  Education    Wealth  
  High Middle Low p trenda DIR b High Middle Low p trenda DIR b
Smoking
 Ghana 1.00 0.34 (0.03–3.61) 0.69 (0.07–6.5) 0.657 + 1.00 0.26 (0.03–2.34) 1.74 (0.47–6.43) 0.481 -
 South Africa 1.00 0.70 (0.23–2.12) 0.81 (0.23–2.82) 0.983 + 1.00 0.95 (0.52–1.72) 1.37 (0.79–2.40) 0.261 -
 Jamaica 1.00 2.29 (0.47–11.21) 4.62 (1.04–20.6) 0.005 - 1.00 2.73 (1.18–6.3) 5.12 (2.39–10.96) <0.001 -
 Seychelles 1.00 1.30 (0.42–4.03) 1.30 (0.44–3.87) 0.740 - 1.00 0.67 (0.35–1.3) 0.68 (0.36–1.30) 0.281 +
 USA 1.00 5.28 (2.39–11.67) 47.5 (16.2–139.2) 0.000 - 1.00 1.04 (0.55–1.95) 1.97 (1.10–3.53) 0.003 -
Physical activity
 Ghana 1.00 1.81 (0.61–5.44) 2.02 (0.68–6.00) 0.300 - 1.00 1.48 (0.89–2.47) 2.37 (1.41–3.99) 0.001 -
 South Africa 1.00 1.75 (0.63–4.88) 1.27 (0.40–4.02) 0.853 - 1.00 1.36 (0.8–2.32) 1.20 (0.72–1.99) 0.505 -
 Jamaica 1.00 1.04 (0.34–3.21) 1.87 (0.67–5.21) 0.045 - 1.00 0.86 (0.44–1.65) 1.37 (0.78–2.42) 0.187 -
 Seychelles 1.00 1.22 (0.50–2.97) 1.67 (0.72–3.88) 0.109 - 1.00 3.07 (1.74–5.42) 3.84 (2.18–6.76) <0.001 -
 USA 1.00 1.23 (0.60–2.55) 3.11 (1.32–7.32) 0.005 - 1.00 1.63 (0.73–3.65) 2.74 (1.30–5.76) 0.002 -
Obesity
 Ghana 1.00 1.21 (0.14–10.41) 1.03 (0.12–8.87) 0.726 NA 1.00 0.62 (0.29–1.31) 0.29 (0.13–0.68) 0.004 +
 South Africa 1.00 1.84 (0.57–5.91) 1.11 (0.28–4.41) 0.720 - 1.00 1.19 (0.67–2.12) 0.71 (0.40–1.27) 0.223 +
 Jamaica 1.00 1.89 (0.64–5.56) 1.75 (0.63–4.82) 0.518 - 1.00 1.88 (0.95–3.72) 1.02 (0.55–1.91) 0.717 -
 Seychelles 1.00 1.60 (0.59–4.31) 1.27 (0.49–3.28) 0.847 - 1.00 1.05 (0.6–1.83) 0.93 (0.53–1.64) 0.781 NA
 USA 1.00 1.05 (0.60–1.82) 0.61 (0.30–1.27) 0.207 + 1.00 0.90 (0.49–1.64) 1.16 (0.66–2.03) 0.391 -
Hypertension
 Ghana NA 1.00 1.68 (0.65–4.36) 0.286 - 1.00 0.95 (0.29–3.05) 1.00 (0.32–3.10) 0.988 NA
 South Africa 1.00 0.60 (0.22–1.65) 0.85 (0.28–2.62) 0.673 + 1.00 1.18 (0.66–2.12) 1.03 (0.59–1.81) 0.918 NA
 Jamaica 1.00 1.82 (0.21–15.88) 1.80 (0.23–14.14) 0.688 - 1.00 0.76 (0.26–2.18) 0.62 (0.24–1.63) 0.338 +
 Seychelles 1.00 0.94 (0.30–2.91) 0.80 (0.27–2.38) 0.577 + 1.00 0.84 (0.41–1.74) 0.62 (0.29–1.32) 0.214 +
 USA 1.00 1.75 (0.81–3.79) 1.89 (0.74–4.86) 0.199 - 1.00 1.39 (0.62–3.12) 1.96 (0.93–4.12) 0.048 -
High cholesterol
 Ghana 1.00 0.86 (0.18–4.13) 0.83 (0.17–3.92) 0.835 + 1.00 0.57 (0.28–1.17) 0.54 (0.27–1.10) 0.090 +
 South Africa 1.00 2.64 (0.35–20.09) 2.41 (0.28–21.04) 0.685 - 1.00 0.75 (0.37–1.52) 0.68 (0.34–1.35) 0.267 +
 Jamaica 1.00 0.41 (0.13–1.29) 0.41 (0.15–1.11) 0.178 + 1.00 0.62 (0.28–1.38) 0.43 (0.20–0.90) 0.026 +
 Seychelles 1.00 1.59 (0.49–5.15) 1.50 (0.48–4.66) 0.704 - 1.00 1.25 (0.65–2.40) 0.96 (0.49-1.88) 0.829 NA
 USA 1.00 1.89 (0.94–3.77) 0.84 (0.32–2.20) 0.832 NA 1.00 1.92 (0.93–3.93) 1.33 (0.67–2.65) 0.912 -
Elevated blood glucose
 Ghana NA      NA     
 South Africa 1.00 1.00 (0.22–4.5) 1.00 (0.19–5.34) 0.999 NA 1.00 1.04 (0.49–2.21) 0.72 (0.33–1.56) 0.408 +
 Jamaica 1.00 0.58 (0.19–1.85) 0.68 (0.24–1.90) 0.756 + 1.00 0.78 (0.38–1.64) 0.87 (0.46–1.66) 0.726 +
 Seychelles 1.00 1.78 (0.68–4.69) 1.58 (0.63–4.00) 0.692 - 1.00 0.73 (0.41–1.27) 1.03 (0.59–1.78) 0.785 NA
 USA 1.00 1.80 (0.97–3.35) 2.92 (1.34–6.35) 0.007 - 1.00 0.82 (0.44–1.52) 0.99 (0.56–1.74) 0.797 NA
  1. NA indicates no association. We also consider here also trends towards association, i.e., marginally significant p values (p > 0.05& p < 0.09)
  2. ap for linear trend across socio-economic categories
  3. bDirection of social differences
  4. + indicates that the prevalence of the NCD-RF is higher among higher SES groups, − indicates that the prevalence is higher among lower SES groups