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Table 1 Characteristics of the participants included in the study by site

From: The social patterning of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases in five countries: evidence from the modeling the epidemiologic transition study (METS)

  Total Ghana South Africa Jamaica Seychelles USA P a
N 2180 441 485 368 438 448  
GNPb ($)   1′260 6′100 4′550 10′270 48′960  
HDIcd   0.621 0.540 0.727 0.799 0.934  
World bank income classd   Lower middle income Upper middle income Upper middle income High income High income  
Women, N (%) 1209 (55.5) 265 (60.1) 257 (53.0) 227 (61.8) 229 (52.3) 231 (51.6) =0.004
Age, mean (SD) 34.7 (6.2) 34.5 (6.6) 33.3 (5.8) 34.5 (6.2) 36.0 (5.6) 35.4 (6.3) =0.009
Educational level, N (%)        <0.001
 Tertiary 163 (7.5) 16 (3.6) 22 (4.5) 25 (6.8) 29 (6.6) 71 (15.8)  
 Secondary 1106 (50.7) 190 (42.9) 398 (82.1) 84 (22.8) 117 (26.7) 318 (71.0)  
 Lower than secondary 911 (41.8) 237 (53.5) 65 (13.4) 259 (70.4) 292 (66.7) 59 (13.2)  
Wealth tertiles, N (%)        <0.001
 High 557 (26.5) 146 (33.0) 162 (32.9) 91 (24.7) 112 (25.6) 67 (15.0)  
 Middle 691 (31.7) 141 (31.8) 150 (33.4) 101 (27.5) 161 (36.8) 139 (31.0)  
 Low 912 (41.8) 156 (35.2) 173 (31.0) 176 (47.8) 165 (37.7) 242 (54.0)  
Smoking, N (%) 571 (26.2) 11 (2.5) 167 (34.4) 92 (25.0) 91 (20.8) 210 (46.9) <0.001
Physically active, N (%) 853 (39.1) 219 (49.4) 233 (48.1) 107 (29.1) 179 (40.9) 115 (25.7) <0.001
Obese, N (%) 665 (30.5) 46 (10.4) 156 (32.2) 115 (31.3) 110 (25.1) 238 (53.1) <0.001
Hypertensive, N (%) 290 (13.3) 20 (4.5) 96 (19.8) 25 (6.8) 53 (12.1) 96 (21.4) <0.001
High cholesterol, N (%) 336 (15.4) 55 (12.4) 52 (10.7) 46 (12.5) 71 (16.2) 112 (25.0) <0.001
Elevated blood glucose, N (%) 686 (31.5) NA 44 (9.1) 74 (20.1) 168 (38.4) 184 (41.1) <0.001
  1. ap value for difference across sites
  2. bGross National Income per capita in US dollars ($)
  3. cHuman Development Index (2010)
  4. dHDI and world income class are reported for the country from which the five populations are drawn, but these indexes may be different for the specific communities sampled in METS