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Table 1 Sample characteristics and differences by place of residence (N = 353)

From: Factors associated with secondhand tobacco smoke in the home: an exploratory cross-sectional study among women in Aleta Wondo, Ethiopia

  Total Rural Urban p
(n = 179) (n = 174)
Maternal age (years), mean, ± SD (n = 347) 29.4 ± 6.9 29.0 ± 6.5 29.7 ± 7.3 .074
Education (years), mean, ± SD 5.7 ± 3.8 4.3 ± 3.1 7.1 ± 4.0 < .001
Total # persons in household, mean, ± SD 5.8 ± 2.0 6.1 ± 2.1 5.4 ± 1.8 .037
Crowding (# persons/# rooms), mean, ± SD 2.6 ± 1.6 2.8 ± 1.8 2.4 ± 1.3 .022
  n (%) n (%) n (%)  
Marital status     .051
 Married 334 (94.9) 174 (97.8) 160 (92.0)  
 Other 18 (5.1) 4 (2.2) 14 (8.0)  
Currently pregnant 31 (8.8) 16 (8.9) 15 (8.6) ns
Ethnicity (tribal association)     < .001
 Sidama 251 (71.5) 167 (93.8) 84 (48.6)  
 Amhara 58 (16.5) 6 (3.4) 52 (30.1)  
 Gurage 20 (5.7) 2 (1.1) 18 (10.4)  
 Oromo 14 (4.0) 3 (1.7) 11 (6.4)  
 Other 8 (2.3) 1 (0.0) 8 (4.6)  
Religious affiliation, type     < .001
 Protestant 278 (79.2) 174 (97.8) 104 (60.1)  
 Orthodox Christian 61 (17.4) 3 (1.7) 58 (33.5)  
 Muslim 10 (2.8) 0 (0) 10 (5.8)  
 Catholic 2 (0.6) 1 (0.6) 1 (0.6)  
Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)
 “Multidimensionally poor” householdsa 48 (13.6) 37 (20.7) 11 (6.3) <.001
 Individual MPI Indicators:b
  No one in household completed 5 years schooling 38 (11.3) 29 (16.6) 9 (5.6) .002
  School-age child not enrolled in grade 1 to 8 31 (8.8) 22 (12.4) 9 (5.2) .018
  Child death (< 5 years of age) 107 (30.3) 56 (31.3) 51 (29.3) ns
  No electricity 71 (20.1) 57 (31.8) 14 (8.0) <.001
  Limited access to clean drinking waterc 85 (24.1) 50 (27.9) 35 (20.1) .055
  No toilet or improved latrine 64 (18.1) 16 (8.9) 48 (27.6) <.001
  Dirt, sand or dung flooring in dwelling 150 (42.5) 117 (65.4) 33 (19.0) <.001
  Cook with biomass fuel (wood, charcoal, or dung) 352 (99.7) 178 (99.4) 174 (100) ns
  Assetsd 244 (69.1) 153 (85.5) 91 (52.3) <.001
Type of house     <.001
 Rented, leased or borrowed 91 (25.8) 4 (2.2) 87 (50.0)  
 Owned 262 (74.2) 175 (97.8) 87 (50.0)  
Household decision-making (HDM)
 Composite HDM scoree, mean ± SD 1.7 ± 1.2 1.5 ± 1.2 2.0 ± 1.1 <.001
  1. aNumber and percent (%) households deprived in ≥33.3 % of weighted MPI indicators
  2. bNumber and percent (%) deprived within each individual indicator
  3. cHousehold does not have access to clean drinking water or clean water is > 30 min walk from home
  4. dHousehold does not own more than one of: radio, TV, telephone, bike, or motorbike, and do not own a car or tractor
  5. eComposite score of three HDM questions. Score for each question = 1 if reported “self” or “jointly” (Possible score 0 to 3 with higher scores associated with greater participation in decision-making)