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Table 6 Association of AD characteristics and individual costs

From: Economic burden associated with alcohol dependence in a German primary care sample: a bottom-up study

  Type of AD diagnosis a AD severity I b AD severity II c AD severity III c
Excess costs: GP AD Excess costs: CIDI AD Excess costs: AD treatment IRR: DSM-5 AUD criteria IRR: Daily drinking levels
N = 1,356 N = 1,356 N = 143 N = 1,356 N = 1,356
All direct costs (95 % CI) 1132.20 (198.64–2066.09)** 322.07 (−303.93–948.08) −17.89 (−1336.70–1300.92) 1.09 (0.99–1.19) 0.99 (0.95–1.03)
All indirect costs (95 % CI) 1947.09 (950.67–2943.52)** 355.04 (−510.20–1220.28)* 1148.41 (−688.51–2985.33) 1.12 (1.04–1.20)** 1.01 (0.98–1.04)
All costs (95 % CI) 3081.46 (1526.96–4635.96)*** 679.20 (−560.11–1918.52)** 1130.52 (−1435.05–3696.09) 1.11 (1.04–1.19)** 1.00 (0.98–1.03)
  1. Note
  2. AD Alcohol dependence, GP AD Alcohol dependence diagnosis by general practitioner (N = 70), CIDI AD Alcohol dependence diagnosis by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (N = 92), IRR Incidence risk ratio, DSM-5 AUD criteria Number of alcohol use disorder criteria as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, 95 % CI 95 % confidence interval
  3. For testing impact of AD characteristics on different cost variables, age and sex adjusted negative binomial regressions were conducted. Legend of significance: * p < .05 ** p < .01 *** p < .001
  4. a Excess costs for GP AD and CIDI AD diagnoses are presented in comparison to patients without the respective diagnosis. Results based on regression using binary predictor (no diagnosis/diagnosis) among all patients
  5. b Excess costs between treated and untreated AD cases are presented. Results based on regression using binary predictor (untreated/treated) among all AD cases
  6. cThe incidence risk ratios from negative binomial regressions are presented for DSM-5 AUD criteria and drinking levels. Results based on regression using continuous predictor (severity II: number of DSM-5 AUD criteria/ severity III: daily drinking levels in standard drinks per day) among all patients