Skip to main content

Table 4 Descriptive measures of presenteeism among gainfully occupied patients

From: Economic burden associated with alcohol dependence in a German primary care sample: a bottom-up study

  All patients Non-AD AD
N = 792 male female total male female total
N = 317 N = 403 N = 720 N = 52 N = 20 N = 72
Number of days of reduced work in past 30 days due to any health condition (WHODAS 2.0 H3), mean (SD) 3.0 (6.1) 2.3 (5.1) 3.3 (6.2) 2.9 (5.8) 4.0 (8.2) *+ 3.6 (7.5) 3.9 (8.0) *+
Number of days with at most half of usual work capacity in past 30 days due to mental distress (K10 Q6), mean (SD) 2.0 (4.4) 1.4 (3.2) 2.1 (4.1) 1.7 (3.8) 3.2 (7.2)**+ 6.7 (8.7) 4.1 (7.7) ***+
Impaired work productivity due to drinking in past six months
 At least one day, proportion (95 % CI) 3.8 (2.5–5.2) 4.2 (2.0–6.5) 0.3 (0.0–0.8) 2.0 (1.0–3.0) 24.1 (12.2–35.9) ***+ 16.0 (0.0–32.7) **+ 21.9 (12.1–31.7) ***+
 Number of days, mean (SD) 0.3 (3.1) 0.1 (0.8) 0.0 (0.1) 0.1 (0.5) 2.9 (10.8) **+ 0.4 (1.2) °° 2.3 (9.4) **+ °
  1. Note
  2. Significance between patients with and without AD was tested with zero-inflated negative binomial regressions for all count variables, using alcohol dependence and age as predictor in both count (predicting values >0) and logit (predicting 0) model. The following symbols indicate a significant AD predictor: count model * p < .05 ** p < .01 *** p < .001; logit model ° p < .05 °° p < .01 + or – behind the symbol indicates valence of respective coefficient
  3. For the binary variable indicating at least one day with impaired productivity due to drinking, an age-adjusted logistic regression was conducted. The same legend for p-values also applies to negative binomial models
  4. AD Alcohol dependence, WHODAS World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0, SD Standard deviation, K10 Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, 95 % CI 95 % confidence interval