Skip to main content

Table 2 Resource use data in six months before interview by alcohol dependence and sex

From: Economic burden associated with alcohol dependence in a German primary care sample: a bottom-up study

  All patients Non-AD AD
N = 1356 male female total male female total
N = 494 N = 719 N = 1213 N = 95 N = 48 N = 143
Direct costs
 Inpatient admissions a
 Number of nights, mean (SD)
1.2 (5.2) 1.2 (6.0) 1.1 (4.1) 1.2 (5.0) 2.5 (7.3) 0.9 (3.4) 2.0 (6.4)
 Outpatient visits a
 At least one visit, % (CI)
9.9 (8.3–11.6) 8.7 (6.2–11.2) 9.9 (7.7–12.1) 9.4 (7.8–11.1) 15.8 (8.2–23.4) 10.1 (1.7–18.5) 13.9 (8.1–19.7)
 Day case surgery visits a
 At least one visit, % (CI)
6.0 (4.7–7.3) 4.9 (3.0–6.8) 6.0 (4.3–7.9) 5.6 (4.3–6.9) 10.1 (3.8–16.4) 8.2 (0.5–16.0) 9.5 (4.6–14.4)
 Accident & emergency visits a
 At least one visit, % (CI)
11.2 (9.5–12.9) 8.7 (6.2–11.2) 10.7 (8.4–13.0) 9.9 (8.2–11.6) 22.0 (13.5–30.5) 21.7 (9.8–33.6) 21.9 (15.0–28.8)
 GP treatment a
 Number of visits, mean (SD)
6.8 (11.4) 5.8 (9.9) 6.8 (6.4) 6.4 (8.0) 10.4 (25.6) 9.6 (24.0) 10.2 (25.1)
 Prescribed medication a
 Number of prescriptions, mean (SD)
1.8 (1.5) 1.8 (1.5) 1.9 (1.5) 1.8 (1.5) 2.1 (1.5) 1.7 (1.4) 1.9 (1.5)
 Home care a
 At least one home visit, % (CI)
5.2 (4.0–6.4) 5.1 (3.1–7.1) 5.1 (3.5–6.8) 5.8 (3.9–6.4) 7.6 (2.2–13.1) 2.2 (0.0–6.4) 5.8 (1.9–9.8)
 Alcohol treatment
 At least one treatment contact, % (CI)
1.0 (0.5–1.5) 0.4 (0.0–0.9) 0.1 (0.0–0.4) 0.2 (0.0–0.5) 9.6 (3.6–15.5) 2.3 (0.0–6.6) 7.2 (2.9–11.4)
Indirect costs
 Absenteeism among employed patients
 Number of absent days, mean (SD)
8.1 (20.4) 5.5 (15.4) 8.7 (18.4) 7.3 (17.2) 17.2 (41.1) 12.9 (26.6) 16.1 (37.9)
 Unemployment
 % (CI)
8.2 (6.7–9.7) 7.7 (5.3–10.0) 7.8 (5.8–9.8) 7.8 (6.2–9.3) 10.5 (4.3–16.7) 13.9 (4.3–23.6) 11.7 (6.4–16.9)
 Disability/early retirement
 % (CI)
16.5 (14.5–18.5) 17.6 (14.2–21.0) 14.7 (12.1–17.3) 15.8 (13.8–17.9) 22.2 (13.6–30.7) 21.6 (9.8–33.5) 22.0 (15.0–28.9)
  1. Note
  2. AD Alcohol dependence, SD Standard deviation, CI 95 % confidence interval, GP General practitioner
  3. a excluding all alcohol-specific treatments (medication, inpatient and outpatient treatment, group therapy, (GP) counselling/detoxification)