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Table 4 Estimates of the parameters and corresponding standard errors of the parametric PH model (Model I) and parametric frailty models (Model II–III) for birth interval of Bangladesh (BDHS 2004-2011)

From: Trend of determinants of birth interval dynamics in Bangladesh

Covariates Model I Model II Model III
  \(\hat {\beta }\) se \(\hat {\beta }\) se \(\hat {\beta }\) se
Mother’s age at first birth  
Linear 0.055a 0.017 0.214a 0.028 0.125a 0.018
Squared −0.002a 0.001 −0.006a 0.001 −0.004a 0.001
Parity −0.031a 0.008 −0.156a 0.010 −0.052a 0.008
Family composition       
(Boy) 0.186a 0.025 0.157a 0.029 0.167a 0.025
(Girl) 0.246a 0.025 0.249a 0.029 0.243a 0.025
(Boy, Girl)
(Boy, Boy) 0.001 0.031 -0.062 0.038 -0.005 0.032
(Girl, Girl) 0.149a 0.031 0.085b 0.037 0.140a 0.031
(>2 children) 0.032 0.028 0.016 0.032 0.040 0.028
Survival Status
Dead
Alive −0.667a 0.021 −0.927a 0.027 −0.717a 0.022
Mother’s Education
No education 0.282a 0.041 0.468a 0.055 0.295a 0.042
Primary 0.265a 0.040 0.367a 0.054 0.283a 0.042
Secondary 0.072c 0.040 0.081 0.052 0.091b 0.041
Higher
Wealth quintile
Poorest
Poorer −0.093a 0.018 −0.116a 0.028 −0.084a 0.019
Middle −0.183a 0.020 −0.220a 0.029 −0.169a 0.021
Richer −0.278a 0.021 −0.315a 0.031 −0.266a 0.023
Richest −0.432a 0.025 −0.470a 0.036 −0.428a 0.027
Residence
Urban
Rural 0.071a 0.016 0.100a 0.023 0.071a 0.020
Division
Barisal
Chittagong 0.326a 0.023 0.396a 0.034 0.364a 0.033
Dhaka 0.029 0.024 0.046 0.035 0.062c 0.035
Khulna −0.269a 0.028 −0.346a 0.040 −0.251a 0.039
Rajshahi −0.205a 0.024 −0.252a 0.035 −0.173a 0.036
Sylhet 0.462a 0.024 0.634a 0.037 0.501a 0.039
Year of survey −0.078a 0.016 −0.079a 0.022 −0.080a 0.016
Mother’s age at first birth × Year of survey 0.002a 0.001 0.002c 0.001 0.002a 0.001
Family composition × Year of survey  
(Boy) × Year 0.030a 0.008 0.041a 0.009 0.034a 0.008
(Girl) × Year 0.028a 0.008 0.047a 0.009 0.034a 0.008
(Boy, Boy) × Year 0.005 0.010 0.003 0.012 0.006 0.011
(Girl, Girl) × Year 0.012 0.010 0.029b 0.012 0.017c 0.010
(>2 children) × Year 0.001 0.007 -0.0003 0.009 0.001 0.007
Survival Status × Year of survey
Alive × Year −0.023a 0.007 −0.037a 0.009 −0.026a 0.008
Variance of random effects
Community      0.055
Mother    0.411   
Kendall’s tau, τ   0.170 0.027
Baseline hazard
Scale 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001
Shape 2.085 2.565 2.142
Log-likelihood -114958 -113790 -114677
  1. ap-Value <0.01; bp-Value <0.05; cp-Value <0.10