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Table 1 General characteristics of surveyed caregivers and their children in rural Sichuan, China 2015 a

From: Effectiveness of a smartphone app on improving immunization of children in rural Sichuan Province, China: a cluster randomized controlled trial

  Baseline Survey (N = 214)d End-line Survey (N = 205)e P value (Baseline vs End-line)
Total Intervention Control P value Total Intervention Control P value
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Relationship to the childb     0.543     0.660 0.252
 Mother 79(36.92) 36(33.03) 43(40.95)   83(40.49) 46(44.23) 37(36.63)  
 Father 17(7.94) 9(8.26) 8(7.62)   26(12.68) 13(12.5) 13(12.87)  
 Grandparents 114(53.27) 61(55.96) 53(50.48)   93(45.37) 44(42.31) 49(48.51)  
 Others 4(1.87) 3(2.75) 1(0.95)   3(1.46) 1(0.96) 2(1.98)  
Main caregiver, yes 183(85.51) 93(85.32) 90(85.71) 0.935 161(78.54) 76(73.08) 85(84.16) 0.053 0.063
Source of family income
 Farming 128(59.81) 70(64.22) 58(55.24) 0.180 79(38.54) 37(35.58) 42(41.58) 0.377 <0.001
 Work outside of hometown 166(77.57) 86(78.9) 80(76.19) 0.635 179(87.32) 89(85.58) 90(89.11) 0.447 0.009
 self-employed 22(10.28) 7(6.42) 15(14.29) 0.058 15(7.32) 8(7.69) 7(6.93) 0.834 0.285
 Others 25(11.68) 12(11.01) 13(12.38) 0.755 9(4.39) 5(4.81) 4(3.96) 0.767 0.006
Education level     0.999     0.566 0.171
 Illiteracy 21(9.81) 11(10.09) 10(9.52)   30(14.63) 18(17.31) 12(11.88)   
 Primary school 96(44.86) 49(44.95) 47(44.76)   97(47.32) 46(44.23) 51(50.50)   
 Junior high school 85(39.72) 43(39.45) 42(40)   63(30.73) 31(29.81) 32(31.68)   
 High School 12(5.61) 6(5.5) 6(5.71)   15(7.32) 9(8.65) 6(5.94)   
Ethnicityb     0.491     1.000 0.428
 Han 213(99.53) 109(100) 104(99.05)   202(98.54) 102(98.08) 100(99.01)   
 Other ethnicity minority 1(0.47) 0(0) 1(0.95)   3(1.47) 2(1.92) 1(0.99)   
Family communication device
 Mobile phone 203(94.86) 102(93.58) 101(96.19) 0.387 201(98.05) 102(98.08) 99(98.02) 0.976 0.079
 Fixed-line telephone 39(18.22) 18(16.51) 21(20) 0.509 33(16.1) 13(12.5) 20(19.8) 0.155 0.564
Gender of children, boy 116(54.21) 54(49.54) 62(59.05) 0.163 116(56.59) 55(52.88) 61(60.4) 0.278 0.624
Age of childrenc, month 18.1(14.6-21) 18.1(15.1-21.8) 17.9(14.3-20.4) 0.307 17.2(14.6-19.7) 17.3(14.2-19.7) 17.0(14.8-19.5) 0.640 0.065
Gravidity     0.724     0.969 0.794
 1 97(45.75) 52(48.6) 45(42.86)   87(44.39) 48(48.98) 39(39.8)   
 2 88(41.51) 42(39.25) 46(43.81)   77(39.29) 37(37.76) 40(40.82)   
  > =3 27(12.74) 13(12.15) 14(13.33)   32(16.33) 13(13.27) 19(19.39)   
Parity     0.567     0.059 0.477
 primipara 98(45.79) 52(47.71) 46(43.81)   101(49.27) 58(55.77) 43(42.57)   
 pluripara 116(54.21) 57(52.29) 59(56.19)   104(50.73) 46(44.23) 58(57.43)   
Gestational age, wk     0.111     0.397 0.072
 Preterm 34(16.50) 12(11.54) 22(21.57)   18(19.57) 11(22.92) 7(15.91)   
 Full term 172(83.50) 92(88.46) 80(78.43)   74(80.43) 37(77.08) 37(84.09)   
Deliver institutionb     0.168     0.729 0.411
 County or above hospital 110(51.4) 56(51.38) 54(51.43)   110(53.66) 55(52.88) 55(54.46)   
 Township hospital 91(42.52) 43(39.45) 48(45.71)   78(38.05) 40(38.46) 38(37.62)   
 Home 4(1.87) 4(3.67) 0(0)   2(0.98) 2(1.92) 0(0)   
 Others 9(4.21) 6(5.5) 3(2.86)   15(7.32) 7(6.73) 8(7.92)   
Local rural hukou, yes 187(87.38) 99(90.83) 88(83.81) 0.122 189(92.2) 93(89.42) 96(95.05) 0.133 0.105
  1. a Chi-square tests were used unless otherwise specified. b: Fisher exact test were used, c: Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used
  2. dAt baseline survey, 2 were missing for gravidity (2 in the intervention group) and 8 were missing for gestational age (5 in the intervention group and 3 in the control group)
  3. eAt end-line survey, 9 were missing for gravidity (6 in the control group, 3 in the intervention group), and 113 were missing for gestational age at birth(56 in the control group, 57 in the intervention group)