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Table 5 Adjusted odds ratios relating CPA and CSA to diabetes, household population aged 18 years or older, Canada, 2012

From: Childhood maltreatment as a risk factor for diabetes: findings from a population-based survey of Canadian adults

  Odds ratios controlling for socio-demographic factors:
  and obesity and smoking status and physical activity level and high blood pressure and life-time depression and diabetes risk factors
Odds (95 % CI) Odds (95 % CI) %∆ Odds (95 % CI) %∆ Odds (95 % CI) %∆ Odds (95 % CI) %∆ Odds (95 % CI) %∆ Odds (95 % CI) %∆
Co-occurrence of CPA and CSA
 Both severe and frequent 2.6* (1.4, 4.9) 2.8* (1.4, 5.5) −2 2.4* (1.3, 4.4) −3 2.6* (1.4, 5.0) −2 2.3* (1.2, 4.4) −23 2.6* (1.4, 4.7) −2 2.3* (1.2, 4.4) −22
 Either severe and frequent or both severe 1.9* (1.3, 2.8) 1.8* (1.2, 2.7) −17 1.8* (1.2, 2.6) −10 1.9* (1.4, 2.8) 0 1.9* (1.3, 2.8) −3 1.9* (1.3, 2.8) −3 1.7* (1.1, 2.6) −27
 Either severe (neither frequent) 1.3 (0.9, 1.7) 1.2 (0.9, 1.7)   1.2 (0.9, 1.6)   1.3 (0.9, 1.7)   1.2 (0.9, 1.7)   1.2 (0.9, 1.7)   1.1 (0.8, 1.6)  
 Both CPA and CSA (neither severe) 0.9 (0.5, 1.8) 1.0 (0.5, 1.8)   0.8 (0.4, 1.6)   0.9 (0.5, 1.8)   0.8 (0.4, 1.7)   0.9 (0.5, 1.8)   0.8 (0.4, 1.6)  
 Either CSA or CSA (neither severe) 1.0 (0.8, 1.2) 0.9 (0.7, 1.2)   0.9 (0.7, 1.2)   1.0 (0.8, 1.3)   0.9 (0.7, 1.2)   1.0 (0.8, 1.2)   0.9 (0.7, 1.1)  
 No CPA and no CSA (reference)              
Diabetes risk factors
Obesity - BMI category (range kg/m2)              
 Underweight (less than 18.5)   0.6 (0.2, 2.5)           0.7 (0.2, 2.7)  
 Normal weight (18.5 to 24.9) (reference)              
 Overweight (25.0 to 29.9)   1.4* (1.1, 1.8)           1.3 (0.9, 1.7)  
 Obese Class I (30.0 to 34.9)   2.5* (1.9, 3.2)           2.1* (1.5, 2.7)  
 Obese Class II (35.0 to 39.9)   5.8* (4.2, 8.0)           4.1* (3.0, 5.8)  
 Obese Class III (40.0 or more)   7.5* (5.3, 10.7)           5.1* (3.6, 7.4)  
Smoking status
 Daily smoker     1.2 (0.9, 1.5)         1.3 (1.0, 1.7)  
 Former daily smoker     1.6* (1.3, 2.0)         1.5* (1.2, 1.8)  
 Never a daily smoker (reference)              
Physically active       0.7* (0.6, 0.8)       0.8* (0.7, 0.9)  
High blood pressure         3.6* (2.9, 4.4)     2.8* (2.3, 3.5)  
Lifetime history of depression           1.1 (0.9, 1.4)   1.0 (0.8, 1.4)  
  1. Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health, 2012 (share file)
  2. %∆ percent change: Refers to the percent change in the standardized regression coefficient for child maltreatment variable resulting from the inclusion of mediating variables in the logistic regression model compared with the model only controlling for socio-demographic factors (only indicated if childhood maltreatment variable was significant in the socio-demographic model)
  3. CPA Childhood physical abuse, CSA Childhood sexual abuse, CI confidence interval
  4. The odds ratios are based on unstandardized regression coefficients. The socio-demographic controls include age, sex, marital status, education, household income, immigrant status, ethnicity, employment status, and place of residence
  5. *Significantly different from reference (p < 0.05)