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Table 6 Adulthood income level in thirds according to mother’s marital status and parental occupation

From: The lifelong socioeconomic disadvantage of single-mother background - the Helsinki Birth Cohort study 1934–1944

Income level in adulthood in thirds (n = 12251)
  Highest Intermediate Lowest
Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2
Groups defined by mother’s marital status, the presence of male caregiver, and his occupation
 Married mother, male caregiver worker Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Unmarried mother, no indication of male caregivera Ref. Ref. 1.59 1.44 2.20 1.94
(1.11–2.28) (1.00–2.06) (1.56–3.09) (1.37–2.74)
 Unmarried mother, male caregiver workerb Ref. Ref. 1.27 1.09 1.47 1.21
(.85–1.92) (.73–1.65) (.99–2.18) (.81–1.79)
 Unmarried mother, male caregiver middle classc Ref. Ref. .99 .95 .93 .88
(.60–.1.64) (.58–.1.57) (.56–1.52) (.54–1.46)
 Married mother, male caregiver middle class Ref. Ref. .60 .63 .51 .56
(.55–.66) (.56–.70) (.46–.56) (.51–.63)
Mother’s occupational status
 Mother worker   Ref.   Ref.   Ref.
 Mother middle class   Ref.   .70   .57
(.64–.78) (.52–.64)
  1. Maximum income level in adulthood is based on state taxation as recorded in the National Census at 5-year intervals between 1970 and 2000. For each recorded year, taxable incomes were log transformed and standardised separately for men and women
  2. Model 1 adjusted for year of birth, sex, birth order, birth weight, mother’s age, length of gestation, evacuation abroad without parents during World War II, mother’s marital status (married/unmarried) and male caregiver’s highest attained occupational status during childhood (missing, worker or clerical)
  3. Model 2 adjusted as in model 1 + mother’s occupational status
  4. OR odds ratio, CI confidence intervals
  5. aThe mothers (n = 303) who have no indication of a male caregiver at any time point
  6. b-cThe mothers (n = 334) who were unmarried at the time of childbirth but the family had a male caregiver later on, according to the child welfare clinic or school records