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Table 3 ORs and 95 % CIs for adulthood SEP according to mother’s marital status at birth

From: The lifelong socioeconomic disadvantage of single-mother background - the Helsinki Birth Cohort study 1934–1944

Educational attainment in adulthood (n = 12304)
  Upper tertiary Lower tertiary Upper secondary Basic or less or unknown
Number of mothers unmarried/total 25/1300 87/2726 162/3060 293/5218
 Model 1 Ref. 1.67 2.87 2.95
(1.07–2.62) (1.87–4.40) (1.95–4.47)
 Model 2 Ref. 1.71 3.04 3.40
(1.08–2.73) (1.96–4.72) (2.17–5.20)
 Model 3 Ref. 1.53 2.28 2.48
(.98–2.43) (1.46–3.56) (1.61–3.83)
Occupational status in adulthood (n = 12047)
  High official Low official Self–employed Manual worker
Number of mothers unmarried/total 36/1527 172/4468 55/1191 278/4861
 Model 1 Ref. 1.62 2.02 2.58
(1.21–2.34) (1.32–3.09) (1.81–3.66)
 Model 2 Ref. 1.55 2.16 2.75
(1.06–2.57) (1.39–3.35) (1.92–3.95)
 Model 3 Ref. 2.29 1.86 2.0
(.88–1.89) (1.21–2.93) (1.38–2.89)
Income in adulthood (n = 12251)
  Highest third Intermediate third Lowest third
Number of mothers unmarried/total 130/4084 189/4081 246/4086
 Model 1 Ref. 1.53 1.91
(1.22–1.93) (1.54–2.37)
 Model 2 Ref. 1.63 2.09
(1.28–2.07) (1.66–2.64)
 Model 3 Ref. 1.43 1.75
(1.13–1.83) (1.39–2.21)
  1. Educational attainment and occupational status indicate maximum position as recorded in the National Census at 5-year intervals between 1970 and 2000. Maximum income level is based on state taxation from the same period. For each recorded year, taxable incomes were log transformed and standardised separately for men and women
  2. Model 1 adjusted for year of birth and sex
  3. Model 2 adjusted as in model 1 + birth order, birth weight, mother’s age, length of gestation and evacuation abroad without parents during World War II
  4. Model 3 adjusted as in model 2 + mother’s occupational status (clerical/worker)
  5. OR odds ratio, CI confidence intervals, SEP socioeconomic position (education, occupation and income)