Skip to main content

Table 2 Associations of covariates with adult socioeconomic position: ORs and 95 % CIs

From: The lifelong socioeconomic disadvantage of single-mother background - the Helsinki Birth Cohort study 1934–1944

Educational attainment in adulthood
  Upper tertiary Lower tertiary Upper secondary Basic or less or unknown
Year or birth Ref. .98 (.96–1.00) 1.01 (.99–1.03) .94 (.92–.96)
Sex (female vs. male) Ref. 1.56 (1.36–1.78) 1.43 (1.25–1.63) 1.85 (1.63–2.10)
Birth order (later vs. firstborn) Ref. 1.24 (1.08–1.42) 1.37 (1.20–1.57) 1.75 (1.55–1.98)
Birth weight (kg) Ref. 1.04 (.90–1.19) .92 (.80–1.06) .91 (.80–1.04)
Mother’s age Ref. .99 (.98–1.00) .97 (.96–.99) .99 (.97–1.00)
Length of gestation (weeks) Ref. 1.00 (.96–1.03) .99 (.96–1.03) 1.01 (.98–1.04)
Evacuation abroad without parents during World War II Ref. 1.27 (1.00–1.62) 1.70 (1.35–2.15) 1.84 (1.47–2.29)
Mother’s occupation (clerical vs. manual worker) Ref. .54 (.46–.62) .25 (.21–.29) .23 (.20–.26)
Occupational status in adulthood
  High official Low official Self-employed Manual worker
Year or birth Ref. 1.03 (1.01–1.06) 1.03 (1.00–1.06) 1.04 (1.02–1.06)
Sex (female vs. male) Ref. 3.65 (3.23–4.13) 1.48 (1.27–1.73) .97 (.86–1.09)
Birth order (later vs. firstborn) Ref. 1.12 (.99–1.26) 1.27 (1.09–1.48) 1.43 (1.27–1.61)
Birth weight (kg) Ref. .98 (.86–1.11) 1.01 (.93–1.28) .88 (.78–1.00)
Mother’s age Ref. 1.00 (.98–1.01) .99 (.98–1.01) .99 (.98–1.00)
Length of gestation (weeks) Ref. .99 (.96–1.03) 1.02 (.98–1.06) 1.01 (.98–1.04)
Evacuation abroad without parents during World War II Ref. 1.51 (1.23–1.85) 1.36 (1.05–1.76) 1.79 (1.47–2.18)
Mother’s occupation (clerical vs. manual worker) Ref. .50 (.44–.57) .58 (.49–.68) .24 (.21–.28)
Income in adulthood
  Highest third Intermediate third Lowest third
Year or birth Ref. 1.08 (1.06–1.09) .96 (.95–.98)
Sex (female vs. male) Ref. .93 (.86–1.02) .99 (.91–1.08)
Birth order (later vs. firstborn) Ref. 1.14 (1.04–1.24) 1.30 (1.19–1.42)
Birth weight (kg) Ref. .83 (.76–.91) .81 (.74–.89)
Mother’s age Ref. 1.00 (.99–1.01) 1.00 (.99–1.01)
Length of gestation (weeks) Ref. 1.01 (.98–1.03) .98 (.96–1.01)
Evacuation abroad without parents during World War II Ref. 1.09 (.94–1.26) 1.25 (1.09–1.43)
Mother’s occupation (clerical vs. manual worker) Ref. .57 (.52–.63) .45 (.41–.50)
  1. All models are adjusted for year of birth and sex
  2. OR odds ratio, CI confidence intervals