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Table 4 Odds of having metabolic syndrome. Lifecourse multivariate logistic regression models using data from multiple imputations. Women (N = 3347)

From: The early life nutritional environment and early life stress as potential pathways towards the metabolic syndrome in mid-life? A lifecourse analysis using the 1958 British Birth cohort

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5
OR CI 95 % p OR CI 95 % p OR CI 95 % p OR CI 95 % p OR CI 95 % p
Mother’s BMI
 Normal 1    1    1    1    1   
 Underweight 0.99 (0.66–1.48) 0.946 0.97 (0.64–1.46) 0.879 0.98 (0.65–1.48) 0.933 1.06 (0.69–1.62) 0.804 1.05 (0.68–1.60) 0.838
 Overweight 1.54 (1.25–1.90) <0.001 1.55 (1.25–1.91) <0.001 1.51 (1.22–1.87) <0.001 1.38 (1.10–1.72) 0.005 1.37 (1.10–1.71) 0.005
 Obese 2.05 (1.36–3.08) <0.001 2.05 (1.36–3.09) <0.001 2.06 (1.36–3.11) <0.001 1.43 (0.92–2.22) 0.116 1.39 (0.89–2.18) 0.145
Mother’s education level
 Left school at 15 or later 1    1    1    1    1   
 Left school before 14 1.38 (1.10–1.73) 0.006 1.37 (1.09–1.72) 0.007 1.29 (1.02–1.63) 0.037 1.32 (1.04–1.69) 0.024 1.31 (1.03–1.68) 0.029
Father’s social class at birth
 Non-manual 1    1    1    1    1   
 Manual 1.53 (1.22–1.94) <0.001 1.52 (1.20–1.92) <0.001 1.43 (1.13–1.82) 0.003 1.36 (1.06–1.75) 0.015 1.33 (1.04–1.71) 0.026
Overcrowding
  > 1.5 personne/chambre 1    1    1    1    1   
  < =1.5 personne/chambre 1.07 (0.82–1.40) 0.593 1.08 (0.83–1.40) 0.586 1.09 (0.84–1.43) 0.508 1.11 (0.84–1.47) 0.469 1.12 (0.84–1.48) 0.444
Birthweight
 Q1 - Low weight 1    1    1    1    1   
 Q2 0.78 (0.60–1.00) 0.049 0.77 (0.60–1.00) 0.048 0.79 (0.62–1.03) 0.078 0.80 (0.61–1.04) 0.090 0.79 (0.61–1.03) 0.088
 Q3 0.77 (0.59–1.00) 0.049 0.77 (0.59–1.00) 0.050 0.80 (0.61–1.04) 0.095 0.78 (0.59–1.02) 0.072 0.78 (0.59–1.03) 0.082
 Q4 - High weight 0.81 (0.61–1.06) 0.122 0.81 (0.61–1.06) 0.122 0.84 (0.64–1.11) 0.220 0.79 (0.60–1.05) 0.111 0.79 (0.60–1.05) 0.110
Mother smoked during pregnancy
 No 1    1    1    1    1   
 Sometimes 1.60 (1.14–2.24) 0.007 1.59 (1.13–2.23) 0.008 1.51 (1.07–2.14) 0.019 1.45 (1.01–2.08) 0.043 1.41 (0.98–2.02) 0.061
 Moderately 1.24 (0.97–1.59) 0.081 1.24 (0.97–1.59) 0.082 1.23 (0.96–1.58) 0.104 1.16 (0.89–1.51) 0.260 1.15 (0.88–1.49) 0.306
 Heavily 1.43 (1.09–1.86) 0.009 1.42 (1.09–1.86) 0.010 1.35 (1.03–1.77) 0.030 1.22 (0.92–1.63) 0.174 1.23 (0.92–1.63) 0.162
Mother’s age at birth
 23 years or less 1    1    1    1    1   
 24 to 27 years 0.64 (0.50–0.81) <0.001 0.64 (0.50–0.82) <0.001 0.67 (0.52–0.85) 0.001 0.69 (0.54–0.90) 0.005 0.69 (0.54–0.90) 0.005
 28 to 31 years 0.72 (0.55–0.94) 0.016 0.73 (0.56–0.95) 0.021 0.77 (0.58–1.01) 0.058 0.82 (0.62–1.08) 0.163 0.83 (0.62–1.10) 0.190
 32 years or more 0.73 (0.55–0.96) 0.023 0.73 (0.55–0.96) 0.027 0.79 (0.59–1.05) 0.103 0.82 (0.61–1.11) 0.195 0.83 (0.62–1.12) 0.220
Breastfed
 No 1    1    1    1    1   
 Yes, for less than 1 month 1.00 (0.78–1.27) 0.983 1.01 (0.79–1.28) 0.966 1.02 (0.80–1.30) 0.895 1.01 (0.78–1.30) 0.965 1.01 (0.78–1.30) 0.969
 Yes, more than 1 month 1.10 (0.89–1.36) 0.386 1.11 (0.90–1.38) 0.330 1.15 (0.92–1.42) 0.212 1.15 (0.92–1.43) 0.231 1.16 (0.93–1.45) 0.194
Parity
 Oldest child 1    1    1    1    1   
 2nd child 0.88 (0.71–1.10) 0.260 0.88 (0.70–1.09) 0.239 0.86 (0.68–1.07) 0.180 0.89 (0.70–1.12) 0.309 0.88 (0.70–1.12) 0.300
 3rd child or more 0.87 (0.68–1.11) 0.273 0.86 (0.67–1.10) 0.227 0.80 (0.62–1.04) 0.097 0.83 (0.63–1.08) 0.158 0.81 (0.62–1.06) 0.133
Gestational age
 38 weeks or less 1    1    1    1    1   
 39 to 41 weeks 0.83 (0.59–1.15) 0.266 0.84 (0.60–1.17) 0.294 0.83 (0.59–1.16) 0.277 0.88 (0.62–1.23) 0.449 0.87 (0.62–1.23) 0.435
 42 weeks or more 0.89 (0.62–1.26) 0.505 0.89 (0.63–1.27) 0.527 0.88 (0.61–1.26) 0.482 0.91 (0.63–1.32) 0.629 0.91 (0.63–1.31) 0.616
Type of delivery
 Vaginal 1    1    1    1    1   
 Emergency caesarean 1.79 (0.91–3.52) 0.092 1.81 (0.92–3.56) 0.087 1.85 (0.93–3.65) 0.078 1.74 (0.85–3.56) 0.128 1.79 (0.87–3.66) 0.112
 Elective caesarean 0.92 (0.37–2.31) 0.865 0.93 (0.37–2.32) 0.875 0.97 (0.39–2.44) 0.956 0.93 (0.36–2.37) 0.875 0.94 (0.37–2.40) 0.894
Adverse childhood experiences
 None     1    1    1    1   
 One     1.19 (0.96–1.48) 0.106 1.15 (0.93–1.43) 0.194 1.15 (0.92–1.44) 0.222 1.12 (0.90–1.41) 0.314
 Two or more     1.07 (0.76–1.52) 0.695 1.01 (0.71–1.45) 0.942 0.96 (0.66–1.39) 0.836 0.94 (0.65–1.36) 0.735
Smoking status at 23
 Non-smoker        1    1    1   
 Former smoker        0.81 (0.64–1.04) 0.097 0.83 (0.64–1.07) 0.155 0.83 (0.64–1.08) 0.173
 Smoker - Less than 10 cig.        0.92 (0.65–1.30) 0.628 0.95 (0.67–1.36) 0.797 0.95 (0.66–1.35) 0.763
 Smoker - 10 to 19 cig.        0.88 (0.65–1.19) 0.409 0.97 (0.71–1.33) 0.860 0.94 (0.69–1.28) 0.694
 Smoker - More than 20 cig.        1.08 (0.81–1.44) 0.602 1.14 (0.85–1.53) 0.393 1.09 (0.81–1.47) 0.555
Alcohol consumption at 23
 Moderate        1    1    1   
 Abstainers        0.98 (0.79–1.21) 0.846 0.91 (0.73–1.13) 0.384 0.87 (0.70–1.09) 0.230
 Heavy drinkers        0.80 (0.58–1.10) 0.174 0.75 (0.54–1.04) 0.089 0.75 (0.54–1.05) 0.093
Physical activity at 23
 Physically active        1    1    1   
 Moderately active        0.84 (0.60–1.18) 0.309 0.83 (0.58–1.17) 0.281 0.83 (0.59–1.18) 0.306
 Inactive        1.18 (0.93–1.50) 0.167 1.12 (0.88–1.44) 0.354 1.10 (0.85–1.41) 0.472
Malaise inventory at 23
 No        1    1    1   
 Yes        1.25 (0.91–1.72) 0.161 1.19 (0.86–1.66) 0.300 1.17 (0.84–1.64) 0.346
Education level at 23
 Passed A levels        1    1    1   
 Passed O levels        1.11 (0.84–1.46) 0.455 1.05 (0.79–1.40) 0.723 1.01 (0.76–1.35) 0.950
 No qualifications        1.23 (0.90–1.69) 0.191 1.08 (0.78–1.50) 0.632 0.97 (0.69–1.37) 0.869
BMI at 23
 Normal           1    1   
 Underweight           0.41 (0.22–0.74) 0.003 0.41 (0.23–0.75) 0.004
 Overweight           2.71 (2.08–3.52) <0.001 2.63 (2.02–3.44) <0.001
 Obese           7.82 (4.63–13.21) <0.001 7.41 (4.39–12.51) <0.001
Occupational social class at 33
 Non-manual              1   
 Manual              1.09 (0.85–1.40) 0.487
Wealth at 33
 Not owner              1   
 Owner - Q1 (Low price)              0.95 (0.71 - 1.27) 0.722
 Owner - Q2              0.83 (0.61–1.13) 0.240
 Owner - Q3              0.74 (0.54–1.03) 0.072
 Owner - Q4              0.72 (0.50–1.03) 0.076
Marital status at 33
 Couple              1   
 Single              0.92 (0.64–1.32) 0.646
 Divorced or widowed              1.06 (0.75–1.52) 0.728
  1. Model 1 included mother’s pre-pregnancy BMI and all variables measured at or around birth; Model 2: Model 1 + ACE; Model 3: Model 2 + potential mediators measured at 23 years except for participants’ BMI at 23 years; Model 4: Model 3 + participant’s BMI at 23 years; Model 5: Full model