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Table 1 Characteristics of the studied sample

From: The early life nutritional environment and early life stress as potential pathways towards the metabolic syndrome in mid-life? A lifecourse analysis using the 1958 British Birth cohort

  Men (N = 3395) Women (N = 3347)
Number Percent Number Percent
Metabolic syndrome
 No 2121 62.5 2685 80.2
 Yes 1274 37.5 662 19.8
Metabolic syndrome components
 High systolic blood pressure 1861 54.8 828 24.7
 High diastolic blood pressure 1261 37.1 593 17.7
 Low HDL cholesterol 286 8.4 429 12.8
 High triglycerides 2115 62.3 1097 32.8
 High waist circumference 1090 32.1 1188 35.5
 High HbA1c 101 3.0 61 1.8
Mother’s BMI
 Normal 2 474 72.9 2 396 71.6
 Underweight 129 3.8 167 5.0
 Overweight 648 19.1 656 19.6
 Obese 144 4.2 128 3.8
Adverse childhood experiences
 None 2 482 73.1 2 471 73.8
 One 693 20.4 662 19.8
 Two or more 220 6.5 214 6.4
Mother’s education level
 Left school at 15 or later 921 27.1 903 27.0
 Left school before 14 2 453 72.3 2 431 72.6
 Missing 21 0.6 13 0.4
Father’s social class at birth
 Non-manual 988 29.1 922 27.5
 Manual 2 271 66.9 2 274 67.9
 Missing 136 4.0 151 4.5
Overcrowding
  > 1.5 person/room 360 10.6 408 12.2
  < =1.5 person/room 2 949 86.9 2 870 85.7
 Missing 86 2.5 69 2.1
Birthweight
 Q1 - Low weight 711 20.9 727 21.7
 Q2 935 27.5 871 26.0
 Q3 871 25.7 829 24.8
 Q4 - High weight 763 22.5 828 24.7
 Missing 115 3.4 92 2.7
Mother smoked during pregnancy
 No 2 301 67.8 2 225 66.5
 Sometimes 212 6.2 196 5.9
 Moderately 479 14.1 507 15.1
 Heavily 367 10.8 385 11.5
 Missing 36 1.1 34 1.0
Mother’s age at birth
 23 years or less 866 25.5 889 26.6
 24 to 27 years 974 28.7 924 27.6
 28 to 31 years 770 22.7 732 21.9
 32 years or more 784 23.1 799 23.9
 Missing 1 0.0 3 0.1
Breastfed
 No 956 28.2 922 27.5
 Yes, for less than 1 month 757 22.3 756 22.6
 Yes, more than 1 month 1 477 43.5 1 482 44.3
 Missing 205 6.0 187 5.6
Parity
 Oldest child 1 221 36.0 1 255 37.5
 2nd child 1 151 33.9 1 016 30.4
 3rd child or more 1 023 30.1 1 076 32.1
 38 weeks or less 275 8.1 261 7.8
Gestational age
 38 weeks or less 275 8.1 261 7.8
 39 to 41 weeks 1 970 58.0 1 893 56.6
 42 weeks or more 855 25.2 875 26.1
 Missing 295 8.7 318 9.5
Type of delivery
 Vaginal 3 302 97.3 3 271 97.7
 Emergency caesarean 51 1.5 44 1.3
 Elective caesarean 42 1.2 32 1.0
Smoking status at 23
 Non-smoker 858 25.3 991 29.6
 Former smoker 928 27.3 840 25.1
 Smoker - Less than 10 cig. 201 5.9 293 8.8
 Smoker - 10 to 19 cig. 398 11.7 430 12.8
 Smoker - More than 20 cig. 529 15.6 408 12.2
 Missing 481 14.2 385 11.5
Alcohol consumption at 23
 Moderate 1 412 41.6 1 567 46.8
 Abstainers 346 10.2 1 031 30.8
 Heavy drinkers 1 155 34.0 363 10.8
 Missing 482 14.2 386 11.5
Physical activity at 23
 Physically active 1 254 36.9 730 21.8
 Moderately active 542 16.0 420 12.5
 Inactive 1 114 32.8 1 812 54.1
 Missing 485 14.3 385 11.5
Malaise inventory at 23
 No 2 815 82.9 2 677 80.0
 Yes 94 2.8 282 8.4
 Missing 486 14.3 388 11.6
Education level at 23
 Passed A levels 731 21.5 682 20.4
 Passed O levels 1 119 33.0 1 342 40.1
 No qualifications 1 062 31.3 936 28.0
 Missing 483 14.2 387 11.6
BMI at 23
 Normal 2 299 67.7 2 377 71.0
 Underweight 68 2.0 183 5.5
 Overweight 447 13.2 300 9.0
 Obese 52 1.5 73 2.2
 Missing 529 15.6 414 12.4
Occupational social class at 33
 Non-manual 1 518 44.7 1 981 59.2
 Manual 1 314 38.7 850 25.4
 Missing 563 16.6 516 15.4
Wealth at 33
 Not owner 672 19.8 672 20.1
 Owner - Q1 (Low price) 561 16.5 570 17.0
 Owner - Q2 569 16.8 591 17.7
 Owner - Q3 594 17.5 566 16.9
 Owner - Q4 544 16.0 588 17.6
 Missing 455 13.4 360 10.8
Marital status at 33
 Couple 2 396 70.6 2 496 74.6
 Single 417 12.3 276 8.2
 Divorced or widowed 144 4.2 254 7.6
 Missing 438 12.9 321 9.6