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Table 8 Cost per client of vertical services compared to integrated provision, 2013 USD

From: Randomized evaluation and cost-effectiveness of HIV and sexual and reproductive health service referral and linkage models in Zambia

  Cost per client
Vertical urban site Vertical rural site Integrated comparator site
HIV testing and counseling $121 $118 $112
Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) $76 $31 $25
IUD insertion $9 $142 $16
Implant insertion $8 $134 $14
Post-partum IUD $8 $135 $15
Other referral servicesa
 Cervical cancer screening $18   
 CD4 count $7   
 Tuberculosis testing $8   
 Antiretroviral therapy $10   
 STI testing $8   
  1. aCost per consultation, excluding any patient-specific, variable costs such as drugs and medical supplies as the trial did not provide access to client medical records. These costs were not considered variable for HTC, VMMC and FP services as all clients receive the same service with standard quantities of medical consumables. Hence, other referral services were thus not included in the technical efficiency analysis