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Table 3 Descriptive and independent bivariate analysis of barriers to DPA with overall implementation fidelity, school and classroom levels

From: Evaluation of Daily Physical Activity (DPA) policy implementation in Ontario: surveys of elementary school administrators and teachers

Barrier Overall % school administratorsa (n)b Bivariate associations at school levelc Overall % Teachersa (n)b Bivariate associations at classroom leveld
OR (95 % CI) p-value OR (95 % CI) p-value
Competing curriculum priorities       
 Disagree/strongly disagree 15.1 (30) 3.63 (1.31–10.02) 0.013 12.2 (35) 5.54 (2.29–13.38) <0.0005
 Neutral 8.5 (17) 2.46 (0.77–7.88) 0.131 9.4 (27) 2.71 (1.14–6.41) 0.024
 Agree/strongly agree 76.4 (152) R R 78.5 (226) R R
Lack of time       
 Disagree/strongly disagree 26.7 (54) 5.75 (2.51–13.19) <0.0005 14.7 (43) 7.23 (3.02–17.31) <0.0005
 Neutral 11.9 (24) 2.00 (0.80–5.02) 0.140 6.5 (19) 2.58 (0.95–7.03) 0.064
 Agree/strongly agree 61.4 (124) R R 78.8 (230) R R
Lack of teacher readiness       
 Disagree/strongly disagree 32.8 (66) 4.22 (2.00–8.90) <0.0005 38.2 (108) 2.16 (1.25–3.73) 0.006
 Neutral 19.9 (40) 1.034 (0.49–2.18) 0.925 20.8 (59) 0.97 (0.50–1.86) 0.923
 Agree/strongly agree 47.3 (95) R R 41.0 (116) R R
Lack of space       
 Disagree/strongly disagree 58.4 (118) 2.43 (1.29–4.58) 0.006 23.8 (69) 3.15 (1.72–5.74) <0.0005
 Neutral 10.4 (21) 1.30 (0.47–3.59) 0.608 13.1 (38) 1.72 (0.83–3.57) 0.146
 Agree/strongly agree 31.2 (63) R R 63.1 (183) R R
Bad weather       
 Disagree/strongly disagree 49.8 (101) 2.13 (1.11–4.09) 0.023 38.7 (111) 3.03 (1.70–5.42) <0.0005
 Neutral 19.7 (40) 2.07 (0.90–4.76) 0.088 25.8 (74) 1.17 (0.62–2.21) 0.629
 Agree/strongly agree 30.5 (62) R R 35.5 (102) R R
Students’ reluctance to participate       
 Disagree/strongly disagree 55.0 (111) 0.93 (0.48–1.82) 0.833 51.4 (146) 1.56 (0.90–2.71) 0.113
 Neutral 17.8 (36) 0.88 (0.37–2.11) 0.779 17.3 (49) 0.87 (0.42–1.82) 0.711
 Agree/strongly agree 27.2 (55) R R 31.3 (89) R R
Lack of equipment       
 Disagree/strongly disagree 68.0 (138) 1.82 (0.85–3.87) 0.122 41.4 (120) 2.39 (1.41–4.04) 0.001
 Neutral 14.8 (30) 1.64 (0.60–4.48) 0.338 15.9 (46) 1.09 (0.54–2.21) 0.814
 Agree/strongly agree 17.2 (35) R R 42.8 (124) R R
Lack of resources       
 Disagree/strongly disagree 59.2 (119) 1.85 (0.83–4.12) 0.131 38.7 (111) 3.73 (2.08–6.69) <0.0005
 Neutral 25.4 (51) 1.36 (0.55–3.36) 0.507 23.7 (68) 0.94 (0.49–1.81) 0.855
 Agree/strongly agree 15.4 (31) R R 37.6 (108) R R
Lack of school board support       
 Disagree/strongly disagree 48.0 (96) 2.11 (0.89–4.99) 0.091 31.7 (91) 4.19 (2.24–7.83) <0.0005
 Neutral 38.0 (76) 1.02 (0.43–2.44) 0.965 34.1 (98) 1.66 (0.92–2.98) 0.093
 Agree/strongly agree 14.0 (28) R R 34.1 (98) R R
Lack of amenities       
 Disagree/strongly disagree 72.0 (144) 1.70 (0.73–3.94) 0.217 56.3 (162) 3.22 (1.67–6.22) 0.001
 Neutral 15.0 (30) 1.64 (0.56 – 4.79) 0.369 23.3 (67) 1.62 (0.76–3.48) 0.214
 Agree/strongly agree 13.0 (26) R R 20.5 (59) R R
Lack of parent/guardian support       
 Disagree/strongly disagree 60.2 (118) 1.95 (0.75–5.07) 0.171 50.7 (142) 1.28 (0.64–2.55) 0.483
 Neutral 29.6 (58) 1.24 (0.45–2.45) 0.680 32.9 (92) 0.64 (0.30–1.33) 0.227
 Agree/strongly agree 10.2 (20) R R 16.4 (46) R R
  1. aPercentage totals may not equal 100 % due to rounding
  2. bCount totals (n) may not equal total sample (n = 209 for school administrators; n = 307 for teachers), and differ between variables, due to missing values
  3. cBivariate analysis at school level conducted using logistic regression
  4. dBivariate analysis at classroom level conducted using generalized linear mixed models to adjust for school-level clustering effects
  5. RReference category