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Table 2 Descriptive and independent bivariate analysis of predictors with overall implementation fidelity, school and classroom levels

From: Evaluation of Daily Physical Activity (DPA) policy implementation in Ontario: surveys of elementary school administrators and teachers

Characteristic Overall % school Administratorsa (n)b Bivariate Associations at school levelc Overall % Teachersa (n)b Bivariate associations at classroom leveld
OR (95 % CI) p-value OR (95 % CI) p-value
Awareness of DPA policy requirements       
Overall awareness of policy requirements       
 Aware of more than half 81.1 (163) 2.17 (1.05–4.46) 0.036 62.6 (189) 1.63 (1.00–2.65) 0.048
 Aware of less than half 18.9 (38) R R 37.4 (113) R R
Scheduling and monitoring activities       
Scheduling in teachers’ timetables       
 DPA is scheduled 66.5 (137) 4.39 (2.30–8.39) <0.0005 67.0 (203) 3.38 (1.99–5.73) <0.0005
 DPA is not scheduled 29.6 (61) R R 33.0 (100) R R
 I don’t know 3.9 (8) -- -- -- -- --
Presence of school DPA monitoring procedure       
 A procedure exists 25.2 (52) 4.73 (2.09–10.75) <0.0005 10.5 (32) 4.89 (2.01–11.90) 0.001
 A procedure does not exist 72.3 (149) R R 69.9 (214) R R
 I don’t know 2.4 (5) -- -- 19.6 (60) -- --
Organization of DPA delivery       
Type of DPA participation       
 Several/all classes participate at the same time 8.9 (18) 3.75 (0.96–14.65) 0.057 10.2 (28) 1.54 (0.64–3.72) 0.332
 Each class participates at separate times 65.8 (133) 1.21 (0.62–2.35) 0.581 48.5 (133) 1.10 (0.65–1.84) 0.724
 Participation varies throughout the year 25.3 (51) R R 41.2 (113) R R
Individual instructing DPA       
 Generalist teacher 83.7 (170) 0.46 (0.15–1.48) 0.195 75.9 (208) 0.95 (0.49–1.84) 0.881
 Teacher with HPE specialization 8.4 (17) R R 16.8 (46) R R
 Other 7.9 (16) -- -- 7.3 (20) -- --
Perceived self-efficacy in carrying out DPA activities       
Confidence level in planning DPA       
 High 65.2 (118) 1.18 (0.62–2.25) 0.613 62.3 (172) 5.36 (3.06–9.37) <0.0005
 Low-to-moderate 34.8 (63) R R 37.7 (104) R R
Confidence level in implementing DPA       
 High 62.8 (113) 1.43 (0.76–2.69) 0.273 60.1 (161) 6.81 (3.87–11.97) <0.0005
 Low-to-moderate 37.2 (67) R R 39.9 (107) R R
Use of DPA resources and supports       
Frequency of using DPA resources       
 Often or always 11.3 (23) 4.84 (1.54–15.18) 0.007 10.6 (32) 5.39 (2.15–13.48) <0.0005
 Occasionally 35.0 (71) 3.00 (1.56–5.78) 0.001 32.3 (98) 1.99 (1.18–3.36) 0.010
 Never or rarely 53.7 (109) R R 57.1 (173) R R
Frequency of using DPA supports       
Often or always 8.7 (18) 13.54 (1.74–105.50) 0.013 5.3 (16) 6.68 (1.79–24.86) 0.005
 Occasionally 39.1 (81) 1.35 (0.75–2.45) 0.315 25.1 (76) 3.91 (2.17–7.02) <0.0005
 Never or rarely 52.2 (108) R R 69.7 (211) R R
Frequency of communicating with public health units regarding DPA       
 Often or always 6.8 (14) 1.34 (0.43–4.20) 0.616 1.0 (3) -- --
 Occasionally 23.3 (48) 1.95 (0.95–4.00) 0.070 4.3 (13) 2.39 (0.70–8.14) 0.164
 Never or rarely 69.9 (144) R R 94.7 (286) R R
Perceptions of DPA policy       
Clear and easy to understand       
 Agree/strongly agree 85.6 (178) 1.40 (0.36–5.40) 0.625 82.9 (247) 1.98 (0.62–6.31) 0.245
 Neutral 10.1 (21) 0.73 (0.15–3.49) 0.691 12.4 (37) 1.24 (0.33–4.62) 0.746
 Disagree/strongly disagree 4.3 (9) R R 4.7 (14) R R
Realistic and achievable       
 Agree/strongly agree 56.0 (117) 3.29 (1.68–6.44) 0.001 43.0 (129) 8.61 (4.85–15.27) <0.0005
 Neutral 18.2 (54) 1.89 (0.80–4.43) 0.145 16.0 (48) 2.20 (1.089–4.46) 0.028
 Disagree/strongly disagree 25.8 (38) R R 41.0 (123) R R
Equally important as other school curriculum requirements       
 Agree/strongly agree 75.4 (156) 1.99 (0.81–4.89) 0.135 58.4 (175) 3.13 (1.72–5.68) <0.0005
 Neutral 14.0 (29) 2.28 (0.73–7.10) 0.155 16.7 (50) 1.37 (0.63–2.98) 0.427
 Disagree/strongly disagree 10.6 (22) R R 25.0 (75) R R
Impact on students’ physical well-being       
 Somewhat positive/very positive 93.3 (194) 1.22 (0.41–3.67) 0.720 91.8 (279) 1.54 (0.65–3.62) 0.325
 Neither positive nor negative 6.7 (14) R R 8.2 (25) R R
 Somewhat negative/very negative 0.0 (0) -- -- 0.0 (0) -- --
Impact on students’ emotional well-being       
 Somewhat positive/very positive 90.4 (188) 1.08 (0.42–2.77) 0.873 89.1 (269) 1.37 (0.64–2.95) 0.419
 Neither positive nor negative 9.6 (20) R R 10.6 (32) R R
 Somewhat negative/very negative 0.0 (0) -- -- 0.3 (1) -- --
Impact on students’ academic outcomes       
 Somewhat positive/very positive 82.9 (170) 1.32 (0.62–2.77) 0.471 71.6 (220) 1.46 (0.84–2.54) 0.183
 Neither positive nor negative 16.6 (34) R R 24.1 (71) R R
 Somewhat negative/very negative 0.5 (1) -- -- 1.4 (4) -- --
Impact on student conduct       
 Somewhat positive/very positive 87.3 (178) 1.45 (0.61–3.41) 0.401 78.7 (236) 1.15 (0.64–2.09) 0.636
 Neither positive nor negative 11.8 (24) R R 19.3 (58) R R
 Somewhat negative/very negative 1.0 (2) -- -- 2.0 (6) -- --
Impact on students’ social well-being       
 Somewhat positive/very positive 82.4 (168) 2.48 (1.18–5.21) 0.016 75.0 (225) 1.40 (0.81–2.41) 0.231
 Neither positive nor negative 17.2 (35) R R 24.3 (73) R R
 Somewhat negative/very negative 0.5 (1) -- -- 0.7 (2) -- --
Impact on the development of physical activity habits       
 Somewhat positive/very positive 87.1 (175) 1.34 (0.57–3.12) 0.501 80.6 (241) 1.58 (0.86–2.91) 0.142
 Neither positive nor negative 12.4 (25) R R 19.4 (58) R R
 Somewhat negative/very negative 0.5 (1) -- -- 0.0 (0) -- --
  1. aPercentage totals may not equal 100 % due to rounding
  2. bCount totals (n) may not equal total sample (n = 209 for school administrators; n = 307 for teachers), and differ between variables, due to missing values
  3. cBivariate analysis at school level conducted using logistic regression
  4. dBivariate analysis at classroom level conducted using generalized linear mixed models to adjust for school-level clustering effects
  5. RReference category
  6. --Categories with low counts (overall frequency ≤ 2.0 %) omitted from bivariate analysis