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Table 2 Intervention Development Studies

From: Equality in sexual health promotion: a systematic review of effective interventions for black and minority ethnic men who have sex with men

First Author N Name Location Theory Description Design Primary Outcome Findings Limitations Future Steps
Daughtridge (2011) 23 young MSM of colour I am Men’s Health Philadelphia, USA Intervention piloting of PrEP with yMSM of colour. Drug adherence. The participants are offered an initial screening process where HIV status is ascertained and if they are HIV-negative they are offered the first 7 pills of Truvada (PrEP treatment). Time on PrEP ranged from 1 – 28 weeks Adherence intervention. Measurement of tablets collection. Workshops offered in educating the participants on safer sex, alongside PrEP Adherence to PrEP treatment. Following the specific methodology the retention rates are quite high. Consistence adherence over time. Overall adherence 73 %. Ongoing, the adherence for the first 4 weeks reaches 80 % Cost, however the effects can be cost significant if PrEP offered to at-risk populations (e.g. yMSMc). Adherence only illustrates indirect HIV prevention success. There is a need for further research (i.e. RCT design). Implement a more accurate measure of adherence
Scale the programme up.
Hightow-Weidman (2015) 15 young black MSM and transgender women (YBMSM/TW)   North Carolina, USA Pilot study. Online intervention based on HealthMEmpowerment.org (HME) online mobile-optimised intervention This is the next phase of the Muessig (2013) IDS project. One month pilot online intervention study. Measuring pre and post intervention acceptability. Outcomes included psychosocial constructs and outcomes associated with sexual risk behaviours. Sexual risk behaviour related outcomes and psycho-social constructs. There were statistically significant improvements in social support
(p = .012), social isolation (p = .050), and depressive symptoms (p = .045)
No control group. Small sample size. The length is too short (one month) as this is a pilot study. Implementing the final stage of this intervention development in the form of a large scale RCT.
Muessig (2013) 22 young black MSM NA North Carolina, USA Formative research in electronic and mobile based intervention. Informing the development of a mobile phone-based HIV intervention. Second round of formative research. Focus groups discussion. In the focus groups, the primary set of discussions explored daily use and feature preferences of mobile phones, websites, and applications. Daily e-journal responses. The participants worked as experts in informing the content of the intervention Focus group discussion, demographic survey and e-journals. NA Importance of communicating by mobile phone texting. There is a need for enhancing a mobile phone application or website with a text messaging component. Also, the participants were interested in information in general sexual health issues. Not representing the population. Small number of focus groups. The incorporation of interactive application features for the HealthEmpowerment.org intervention having in mind the specific needs of this particular group of people. Promising opportunities for health interventions via mobile and web oriented technologies. However, they recommend avoiding one-size-fits-all health messages, as there is a need for acknowledging cultural and individual sensitivity.
Rhodes (2015) Latino/Hispanic MSM HOLA en Groupos North Carolina, USA   A description of the enhancement of HOLA en Grupos, a community-based behavioural intervention for Latino/Hispanic MSM which is currently implemented The convergence of representatives from different institutions working with Latino/Hispanic MSM in order to exchange best practice in order to enhance the HOLA en Grupos intervention.   This enhancement project maintains the original format of the Hola en Grupos intervention; it incorporates the experiences of Latino MSM as well as the input of service providers.   Enhance the HOLA en Grupos. Consequently, if HOLA en Grupos is effective it will be implemented on a larger scale.
Solorio (2014) 61 young Latino Immigrant MSM   Seattle, USA Integrated Model of Behaviour Application of data from this formative research to develop HIV prevention messages in order to promote timely HIV testing and then to translate these into public service announcements (PSAs) through a marketing informed technique.
Initial step in the development of theoretically based HIV prevention messages for Latino MSM that may be used in campaigns for HIV prevention.
Intervention Development A number of different steps and stages Development of HIV prevention messages through previously collected formative data; testing PSAs within the Latino MSM community; recognition of important factors to consider when developing HIV prevention messages. Focus group discussion with Latino MSM. Issue of generalisability as the participants where monolingual Spanish of only Mexican descent; recently immigrated to the US. Launching a campaign with which Latino MSM will be helped to receive access to confidential HIV testing and information. The creation of a culturally tailored HIV awareness campaign that the target group could relate to. Delivering the programme through selected channels (e.g. mass media).
Forthcoming evaluation of the media campaign.
Recommendations for studies to use more rigorous RCT designs.
Washington
(2010)
105 Sex-Trading Injection Drug–Using
Black MSMW
  Baltimore,USA   Information and material relevant for the HIV prevention needs of Injecting-Drugs Users Men who have Sex with Men and Women. Issues which need addressing in order to motivate safe sex practices. Intervention Development – Exploratory study Qualitative approach: Focus groups. Self-report demographic study as well. Findings: 1) Need for safe place for information-seeking which is tailored to their specific needs. 2) Prevention programmes with comprehensive services. 3) Communication skills/prompts for negotiating safe sex.