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Table 2 Coverage and inequalities for essential interventions in Afghanistan

From: Coverage and inequalities in maternal and child health interventions in Afghanistan

  Overall coverage (%) Q1 coverage (%) Q5 coverage (%) Difference (Q5–Q1; % points)* Slope index of inequality (% points)* Ratio (Q5:Q1)* Concentration index (×100)*
  % LCL UCL % LCL UCL % LCL UCL % LCL UCL % LCL UCL value LCL UCL % LCL UCL
Family planning needs satisfied 43.1 42.3 43.9 35.8 34.0 37.6 60.7 59.1 62.3 24.9 24.7 25.1 29.8 13.7 46.0 1.70 1.66 1.74 11.3 5.0 17.6
Antenatal care with a skilled provider 47.9 44.6 51.1 25.8 21.2 30.4 78.1 74.6 81.5 52.2 51.1 53.3 57.2 50.5 64.0 3.02 2.68 3.51 21.1 18.2 24.1
Antenatal care visits (4+ visits) 14.6 12.7 16.5 5.8 3.4 8.2 32.4 28.6 36.1 26.5 27.9 25.1 31.7 26.2 37.2 5.57 4.41 8.31 35.9 30.0 41.8
Skilled birth attendant 38.7 35.3 42.0 15.6 12.0 19.1 76.3 72.8 79.9 60.8 60.8 60.8 65.4 60.0 70.8 4.91 4.18 6.06 30.5 27.3 33.7
Early start of breastfeeding 53.6 50.3 56.9 52.1 45.7 58.4 54.3 50.0 58.6 2.2 0.2 4.2 0.4 −8.3 9.1 1.04 1.00 1.09 0.5 −2.3 3.2
DPT3 immunisation 30.9 27.2 34.5 22.2 15.6 28.8 45.9 40.7 51.2 23.7 22.3 25.1 23.2 12.4 34.0 2.07 1.77 2.61 13.0 6.7 19.4
Measles immunisation 40.3 36.5 44.0 32.6 24.9 40.3 50.4 45.2 55.5 17.8 15.2 20.4 19.1 7.1 31.0 1.55 1.38 1.82 7.9 2.8 13.0
Full immunisation 17.6 14.4 20.9 13.2 7.0 19.4 23.9 19.4 28.5 10.8 9.1 12.4 12.4 2.0 22.8 1.82 1.47 2.78 12.1 1.5 22.6
Vitamin A in past 6 months 50.5 47.3 53.6 43.7 38.3 49.1 62.1 58.1 66.1 18.4 17.1 19.8 18.7 10.6 26.9 1.42 1.35 1.52 6.2 3.4 9.1
Oral rehydration therapy 45.8 41.2 50.4 47.0 39.7 54.3 40.8 35.4 46.2 −6.2 −8.1 −4.2 0.8 −8.6 10.1 0.87 0.85 0.89 0.2 −3.3 3.6
Care seeking for pneumonia 60.5 57.2 63.9 46.4 39.3 53.4 65.7 60.0 71.5 19.4 18.1 20.7 19.8 9.7 29.9 1.42 1.34 1.53 5.4 2.5 8.3
Composite coverage index 45.3 43.3 47.3 34.0 29.3 38.7 61.6 57.5 65.7 27.6 27.0 28.2 32.1 24.1 40.0 1.81 1.70 1.96 11.5 6.5 16.6
  1. *Estimates presented as means with 95 confidence intervals
  2. Note: The absolute difference in coverage levels of intervention between the richest (Q5) and poorest (Q1) populations is presented as the “Difference”; the “Ratio” is the measure of relative inequality that is calculated from coverage levels of Q5 divided by Q1. The Slope Index of Inequality is a measure of absolute inequality that includes the cumulative population distribution, and is interpreted as the percentage point difference between Q5 and Q1 (positive values correspond to the intervention being higher in the wealthier subgroup whereas negative values imply higher coverage in the poorest subgroup and a value of 0 indicated absence of absolute inequality). The Concentration Index is a measure relative inequality also using the cumulative population data; 0 indicates no relative inequality and values closer to +100 favour the rich while values closer to −100 favour the poor