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Table 3 Distribution of the daily number of ER admissions for respiratory diseases and daily concentrations of chemical air pollution and aeroallergens during the study period, according to the potential confounders considered in the analysisa

From: Air pollution, aeroallergens and admissions to pediatric emergency room for respiratory reasons in Turin, northwestern Italy

  ER admissions (counts) PM2.5 (μg/m3) NO2 (μg/m3) O3 (μg/m3) Aeroallergens (grains/m3)
Day of the week      
 Monday 22.7 ± 10.2 30.4 ± 26.5 47.2 ± 25.1 38.2 ± 27.7 12.7 ± 20.9
 Tuesday 21.4 ± 9.8 30.8 ± 25.4 50.3 ± 24.5 37.8 ± 28.6 14.9 ± 28.8
 Wednesday 20.4 ± 9.6 32.5 ± 25.4 51.0 ± 23.8 38.9 ± 29.2 18.8 ± 38.1
 Thursday 21.6 ± 9.7 35.1 ± 27.8 52.9 ± 25.9 38.9 ± 30.2 15.1 ± 23.0
 Friday 23.4 ± 11.1 33.3 ± 25.0 50.9 ± 24.7 39.9 ± 29.7 17.2 ± 32.1
 Saturday 31.1 ± 12.4 31.5 ± 26.0 45.0 ± 25.1 42.2 ± 29.8 18.2 ± 33.4
 Sunday 32.2 ± 12.8 30.4 ± 27.4 40.9 ± 24.0 41.3 ± 28.5 15.8 ± 27.4
p <0.001 0.79 0.002 0.87 0.73
Holidays      
 Christmas and Easter 47.6 ± 17.5 25.4 ± 15.2 45.1 ± 27.5 32.0 ± 29.9 1.0 ± 1.9
 3 days before/after Christmas and Easter 34.9 ± 16.3 37.9 ± 21.7 58.6 ± 25.8 25.7 ± 23.7 6.4 ± 15.8
 Other holidays 35.6 ± 15.6 37.4 ± 27.7 49.3 ± 22.7 32.2 ± 30.4 12.6 ± 1.9
 Other days 23.8 ± 10.9 31.6 ± 26.4 48.0 ± 25.0 40.4 ± 29.1 16.6 ± 30.2
 p <0.001 0.39 0.23 0.02 0.20
Influenza outbreaks      
 No 19.9 ± 9.0 22.8 ± 21.0 36.8 ± 16.9 55.2 ± 27.4 23.8 ± 31.9
 Yes 31.0 ± 12.0 43.9 ± 27.5 63.0 ± 25.8 19.9 ± 16.4 6.3 ± 23.0
 p <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Summer population decrease     
 2 weeks around 15 August 13.4 ± 4.71 15.8 ± 5.6 20.7 ± 6.3 66.1 ± 15.4 34.7 ± 28.5
 From 16/7 to 31/8 (except 2 weeks around 15 August) 14.4 ± 5.8 14.5 ± 6.4 26.1 ± 8.5 78.0 ± 19.3 29.1 ± 31.6
 Other days 26.4 ± 11.6 34.5 ± 27.1 52.5 ± 24.5 33.7 ± 26.3 13.4 ± 28.7
 p <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Temperatureb (°C)      
 −6.4, 6.4 29.1 ± 11.6 57.3 ± 28.3 78.9 ± 27.6 12.1 ± 8.8 0.8 ± 2.5
 6.5, 12.8 28.1 ± 11.3 31.7 ± 21.5 51.7 ± 15.2 23.3 ± 17.3 10.1 ± 31.9
 12.9, 20.3 24.8 ± 11.5 27.5 ± 23.9 43.4 ± 17.1 41.2 ± 20.2 14.9 ± 21.6
 20.4, 28.5 19.5 ± 8.2 14.9 ± 6.8 29.4 ± 9.5 73.7 ± 18.4 32.5 ± 39.7
 p <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Cumulative precipitation     
 <1 mm 25.4 ± 11.4 35.5 ± 28.0 51.5 ± 26.2 38.0 ± 33.7 16.0 ± 29.9
 ≥1 mm 25.2 ± 11.5 25.5 ± 19.2 45.0 ± 20.1 33.7 ± 26.0 9.5 ± 27.3
 p 0.87 <0.001 0.01 0.10 0.02
Relative humidity b(%)     
 30.4, 60.4 26.4 ± 10.3 17.8 ± 13.1 41.6 ± 17.9 52.1 ± 24.6 25.1 ± 34.3
 60.5, 68.6 23.1 ± 11.6 25.5 ± 18.9 43.2 ± 22.2 50.9 ± 31.3 21.8 ± 37.5
 68.7, 76.4 25.3 ± 11.3 44.7 ± 30.5 56.9 ± 32.1 28.3 ± 23.0 9.6 ± 25.4
 76.5, 85.5 26.7 ± 12.1 42.5 ± 28.8 58.4 ± 22.1 16.7 ± 15.9 1.9 ± 6.0
 p 0.01 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
  1. amean ± SD reported; overall p-values were calculated using non-parametric Kruskall-Wallis tests, under the null hypothesis that the distribution of a variables is homogeneous among the strata of a potential confounder
  2. b coded in groups according to the quartiles of their frequency distribution