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Table 1 Summary table of co-occurrence, prevalence odds ratios and logistic regression analyses for combinations of two risk behaviours

From: A systematic review on the clustering and co-occurrence of multiple risk behaviours

Risk Behaviour combinations Co-occurrence (prevalence range between studies) Prevalence Odds Ratio (range between studies) Odds Ratio from logistic regression analyses (range between studies)
Adults (16 years+) Young adults (16–21 years) Older adults (50 years +) Adults (16 years+) Young adults (16–21 years) Older adults (50 years +) Adults (16 years+) Young adults (16–21 years) Older adults (50 years +)
Low fruit and vegetables and low physical activity (2 studies) 47–54 % - - 1.19–1.67 - - - - -
2 studies 2 studies
N = 18,066 N =18,066
Alcohol misuse and smoking (12 studies) 9–14 % 13 % 3 % 1.81–2.89 0.90 1.32 1.55–2.44 - -
3 studies 1 study 1 study 3 studies 1 study 1 study 3 studies
N =26,045 N = 815 N = 11,214 N =26,045 N = 875 N = 11,214 N = 24,777
Low fruit and vegetables and Alcohol misuse (2 studies) 13–26 % - - 1.09–1.63 - - - - -
2 studies 2 studies
N = 18,066 N = 18,066
Low Fruit and vegetables and Smoking (3 studies) 23–28 % - - 2.02–2.55 - - 1.77 - -
3 studies 2 studies 1 study
N = 27,048 N = 18,066 N = 5553
Physical activity and alcohol misuse (4 studies) 4–12 % - 3 % 0.65–0.79 - 0.58 - - -
3 studies 1 study 2 studies 1 study
N = 23,537 N = 11,214 N = 18,066 N = 11,214
Physical activity and smoking (6 studies) 8–20 % - 7 % 0.81–1.01 - 1.16 (2002) - - -
1.18 (2012)
5 studies   1 study 2 studies   1 study
N = 42,010   N = 11,214 N = 18,066   N = 11,214 (2012)
Sexual risk and alcohol misuse (4 studies and 6 datasets) - - - - - - 1.81–2.77 1.38–3.22 -
1 study/2 datasets 2 studies/3 datasets
N = 24,926 N = 3119
Sexual risk and illicit drug use (3 studies and 4 datasets) - - - - - - 1.71–4.71 - -
3 studies/4 datasets
N = 4251
Sexual risk and smoking (3 studies and 4 datasets) - - - - - - 1.71–2.11 - -
3 studies/4 datasets
N = 4251