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Table 7 Change in blood pressure medication and physiologic outcomes at 24 monthsa

From: A community-based lifestyle and weight loss intervention promoting a Mediterranean-style diet pattern evaluated in the stroke belt of North Carolina: the Heart Healthy Lenoir Project

Outcome Phase 3
12 months to 24 months Baseline to 24 months
(24 months minus 12 months) (24 months minus baseline)
n Mean, 95 % CI n Mean, 95 % CI
Blood Pressure Medication
Taking BP lowering medication, %
 All 237 0.4 % (−2.3 to 3.2) 250 0.8 % (−3.0 to 4.6)
  --African American 169 1.2 %(−1.6 to 4.0) 177 1.1 % (−3.3 to 5.6)
  --White 66 0.0 % (−5.9 to 5.9) 71 1.4 % (−5.9 to 8.7)
   --Lifestyle 117 2.6 % (−1.1 to 6.3) 127 1.6 % (−4.2 to 7.3)
   --Wt loss, group 48 2.1 % (−5.0 to 9.1) 51 2.0 % (−6.6 to 10.5)
   --Wt loss, combination 72 −4.2 % (−8.8 to 0.4) 72 −1.4 % (−7.5 to 4.7)
Physiologic
Systolic BP, mm Hg
 LS study only 95 −2.8 (−6.4 to 0.7) 104 −4.2 (−7.3 to 1.2) **
 LS and HBP study 140 −0.2 (−3.8 to 3.5) 146 −9.4 (−13.4 to −5.4) ***
 All 235 −1.3 (−3.9 to 1.3) 250 −7.2 (−9.9 to −4.6) ***
  Subgroup by raceb
  --African American 167 −2.0 (−5.3 to 1.2) 177 −8.4 (−11.8 to −5.1) ***
  --White 66 0.9 (−3.3 to 5.2) 71 −4.1 (−8.5 to 0.4)
Subgroup by interventionc
   --Lifestyle 116 −1.2 (−4.9 to 2.5) 127 −8.8 (−12.9 to −4.8) ***
   --Wt loss, group 47 0.4 (−3.9 to 4.8) 51 −3.9 (−8.4 to 0.6)
   --Wt loss, combination 72 −2.4 (−7.8 to 2.9) 72 −6.8 (−11.8 to −1.9) **
Diastolic BP, mm Hg
LS study only 95 −3.4 (−5.4 to −1.5) *** 104 −5.2 (−7.1 to −3.3) ***
LS and HBP study 140 −0.9 (−2.9 to 1.0) 146 −7.8 (−10.1 to −5.5) ***
 All 235 −1.9 (−3.4 to −0.5) 250 −6.7 (−8.3 to −5.1) ***
  --African American 167 −2.4 (−4.2 to 0.5) ** 177 −7.2 (−9.2 to −5.1) ***
  --White 66 −1.0 (−3.0 to 1.0) 71 −5.4 (−7.6 to −3.3) ***
   --Lifestyle 116 −1.9 (−4.0 to 0.2) 127 −6.8 (−9.1 to −4.4) ***
   --Wt loss, group 47 −3.1 (−5.8 to −0.4) * 51 −7.7 (−10.7 to −4.6) ***
   --Wt loss, combination 72 −1.3 (−3.9 to 1.3) 72 −6.0 (−8.8 to −3.2) ***
Weight, kg
 All 232 0.1 (−0.6 to 0.8) 247 −1.6 (−2.5 to −0.7) ***
  --African American 164 −0.1 (−1.0 to .08) 174 −1.8 (−2.8 to −0.8) ***
  --White 66 0.6 (−0.6 to 1.7) 71 −1.0 (−2.9 to 0.8)
   --Lifestyle 113 −0.9 (−2.0 to 0.1) 124 −1.7 (−2.9 to −0.5) **
   --Wt loss, group 47 1.2 (−0.4 to 2.8) 51 −2.1 (−4.3 to 0.0) *
   --Wt loss, combination 72 1.0 (−0.2 to 2.2) 72 −1.1 (−2.7 to 0.4)
Weight, ≥ 5 % weight loss, %
 All 232 12 % (8 to 16) 247 23 % (18 to 28)
  --African American 164 12 % (7 to 17) 174 24 % (18 to 31)
  --White 66 12 % (4 to 20) 71 18 % (9 to 27)
   --Lifestyle 113 16 % (9 to 23) 124 23 % (16 to 31)
   --Wt loss, group 47 11 % (2 to 20) 51 25 % (13 to 38)
   --Wt loss, combination 72 7 % (1 to 13) 72 21 % (11 to 30)
Total cholesterol, mg/dLd
 All 196 1 (−3.3 to 5.0) 211 −3 (−7.8 to 1.7)
  --African American 139 −1 (−6.3 to 4.7) 148 −4 (−10.3 to 1.4)
  --White 55 4 (−0.9 to 9.8) 61 1 (−7.3 to 9.2)
   --Lifestyle 91 2 (−4.0 to 8.8) 99 −2 (−8.1 to 4.3)
   --Wt loss, group 41 −3 (−13.7 to 7.2) 46 −9 (−20.9 to 3.7)
   --Wt loss, combination 64 1 (−4.7 to 7.1) 66 −1 (−9.3 to 7.2)
HDL cholesterol, mg/dL
 All 196 0 (−0.8 to 1.3) 211 −1 (−2.3 to 0.3)
  --African American 139 0 (−1.2 to 1.6) 148 −1 (−2.6 to 0.6)
  --White 55 0 (−1.4 to 2.2) 61 −1 (−3.1 to 1.2)
   --Lifestyle 91 0 (−1.4 to 1.7) 99 −2 (−4.0 to −0.1) *
   --Wt loss, group 41 0 (−2.0 to 2.3) 46 1 (−1.6 to 3.6)
   --Wt loss, combination 64 0 (−1.6 to 2.4) 66 −1 (−2.9 to 1.4)
  1. Abbreviations: BP blood pressure, CI confidence interval, HBP high blood pressure, LS lifestyle
  2. Note: Boldface indicates statistical significance *p ≤ 0.05; **p ≤ 0.01; ***p ≤ 0.001
  3. SI unit conversion factors: To convert all types of cholesterol to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.0259
  4. a Data are means except where noted
  5. b 3 categorized as other race
  6. c Participants selected intervention group at 6 month follow-up visit; if they did not attend this visit they were assigned to lifestyle group
  7. d To convert from mg/dL to mmol/L divide by 68.37