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Table 2 Baseline characteristics: overall, by race, and by intervention groupa

From: A community-based lifestyle and weight loss intervention promoting a Mediterranean-style diet pattern evaluated in the stroke belt of North Carolina: the Heart Healthy Lenoir Project

Characteristics Overall Raceb Participant selected intervention groupc
African White Lifestyle Weight loss, group Weight loss, combination
American
n = 339 n = 219 n = 117 n = 160 n = 57 n = 81
Demographics
 Age, mean (SE) 56 (0.6) 54 (0.8) 58 (1.0) 57 (1.0) 53 (1.3) 55 (1.1)
 Female sex 260 (77) 181 (83) 76 (65) 110 (69) 52 (91) 72 (89)
Race
 African American     101 (63) 41 (72) 62 (79)
 White     58 (37) 16 (28) 17 (21)
Education, y
  ≤ 8 (middle school or less) 16 (5) 11 (5) 5 (4) 11 (7) 1 (2) 2 (3)
 9–11 (some high school) 45 (13) 35 (16) 9 (8) 27 (17) 5 (9) 9 (11)
 12 (high school graduate) 128 (38) 94 (43) 34 (29) 60 (37) 20 (35) 33 (41)
 13–15 (some college) 79 (23) 45 (21) 33 (28) 35 (22) 15 (26) 18 (22)
 16 (college graduate) 49 (14) 26 (12) 22 (19) 17 (11) 11 (19) 13 (16)
  > 16 (graduate school) 22 (7) 8 (4) 14 (12) 10 (6) 5 (9) 6 (7)
Education: high school or less 189 (56) 140 (64) 48 (41) 98 (61) 26 (46) 44 (54)
Marital status
 Married or living with a partner 159 (47) 82 (37) 76 (65) 69 (43) 23 (40) 41 (51)
 Other 180 (53) 137 (63) 41 (35) 91 (57) 34 (60) 40 (49)
Currently have health insurance 251 (74) 156 (71) 92 (79) 117 (73) 45 (79) 58 (72)
Current employment
 Working full time 124 (37) 82 (37) 40 (34) 46 (29) 29 (51) 38 (47)
 Working part time 42 (12) 31 (14) 10 (8) 23 (14) 4 (7) 10 (12)
 Do not work due to health reasons 69 (20) 43 (20) 26 (22) 37 (23) 9 (16) 16 (20)
 Retired 53 (16) 26 (12) 27 (23) 29 (18) 7 (12) 8 (10)
 Other 51 (15) 37 (17) 14 (12) 25 (16) 8 (14) 9 (11)
Annual household income
  < $10,000 62 (20) 50 (26) 11 (10) 40 (29) 6 (11) 9 (11)
 $10,000 to < $20,000 64 (21) 45 (23) 19 (17) 29 (21) 11 (21) 18 (23)
 $20,000 to < $40,000 84 (28) 60 (31) 23 (21) 32 (24) 14 (26) 27 (35)
 $40,000 to < $60,000 33 (11) 15 (8) 18 (17) 11 (8) 8 (15) 9 (11)
 $60,000 to < $80,000 27 (9) 13 (7) 14 (13) 11 (8) 11 (21) 5 (6)
  ≥ $80,000 34 (11) 10 (5) 24 (22) 13 (10) 3 (6) 10 (13)
CVD and risk factors for CVD
 Known coronary heart disease 49 (14) 30 (14) 19 (16) 29 (18) 5 (9) 5 (6)
 Known CVD 62 (18) 37 (17) 25 (21) 34 (21) 7 (12) 8 (10)
 Hypertension 291 (86) 195 (89) 95 (81) 143 (89) 47 (82) 66 (81)
Cholesterol category
 High (≥240 mg/dL) 187 (56) 110 (51) 76 (65) 88 (56) 31 (55) 47 (59)
 Borderline (200–239 mg/dL) 46 (14) 33 (15) 12 (10) 16 (10) 11 (19) 13 (16)
 Desirable (<200 mg/dL) 102 (30) 72 (33) 29 (25) 54 (34) 15 (26) 20 (25)
Diabetes 124 (37) 89 (41) 34 (29) 62 (39) 21 (37) 27 (33)
Current cigarette smoker 54 (16) 37 (17) 17 (14) 36 (22) 4 (7) 5 (6)
Packs of cigarettes smoked per day, mean (SE) for current smokers 0.7 (0.1) 0.6 (0.1) 0.9 (0.1) 0.7 (0.1) 0.6 (0.2) 0.6 (0.3)
Taking BP lowering medication 260 (77) 176 (80) 83 (71) 129 (81) 43 (75) 60 (74)
Lifestyle mean (SE)
 DRA total score 27.8 (0.3) 28.0 (0.5) 27.6 (0.4) 27.8 (0.5) 27.2 (0.7) 27.6 (0.6)
 Fat quality screener score 15.5 (0.2) 15.4 (0.2) 15.07 (0.3) 15.4 (0.2) 15.3 (0.3) 15.4 (0.3)
 Fruit and vegetable, servings per day 3.4 (0.1) 3.4 (0.1) 3.5 (0.2) 3.5 (0.2) 3.0 (0.3) 3.5 (0.2)
 Carotenoid indexe, mean (SE) 40.7 (1.3) 41.9 (1.6) 38.2 (2.5) 41.1 (2.0) 42.1 (3.5) 39.1 (2.4)
 Walking time, min/wkf 91 (11.3) 100 (16.2) 73 (11.8) 110 (18.8) 97 (26.5) 55 (13.3)
 Activity time, min/wkg 149 (14.0) 150 (18.2) 143 (21.5) 160 (22.7) 148 (29.1) 135 (25.7)
Physiologic mean (SE)
 Weight, kg 98.1 (1.4) 100 (1.7) 94 (2.3) 93.8 (2.0) 101.3 (3.3) 106.4 (2.6)
 BMI, kg/m2 36 (0.5) 37 (0.6) 34 (0.8) 34 (0.7) 38 (1.1) 40 (1.0)
 Systolic BP, mm Hgh 135 (1.2) 136 (1.6) 132 (1.8) 138 (1.8) 130 (2.6) 133 (2.3)
  LS study only (n = 139) 125 (1.3) 126 (1.6) 122 (2.2) 124 (2.5) 126 (2.7) 126 (2.0)
  LS and HBP study (n = 200) 142 (1.7) 143 (2.2) 139 (2.4) 142 (2.2) 137 (5.2) 142 (4.0)
 Diastolic BP, mm Hg 82 (0.7) 83 (0.9) 80 (1.0) 83 (1.0) 82 (1.4) 81 (1.3)
  LS study only (n = 139) 79 (0.8) 80 (1.0) 76 (1.4) 77 (1.5) 80 (1.5) 79 (1.5)
  LS and HBP study (n = 200) 84 (0.9) 86 (1.3) 83 (1.3) 85 (1.2) 87 (2.7) 84 (2.2)
 HbA1c, % of total Hb 6.6 (0.1) 6.7 (0.1) 6.2 (0.1) 6.5 (0.1) 6.9 (0.3) 6.5 (0.2)
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL 193 (2.3) 191 (2.8) 196 (4.0) 191 (3.1) 198 (6.0) 189 (4.7)
 HDL cholesterol, mg/dL 54 (0.8) 57 (1.0) 50 (1.4) 55 (1.2) 53 (1.8) 53 (1.5)
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, CVD cardiovascular disease, DRA Dietary Risk Assessment, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein, HbA 1c hemoglobin A1c, HBP high blood pressure, LS lifestyle, SE standard error
  2. Note: SI unit conversion factors: To convert all types of cholesterol to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.0259
  3. a Unless otherwise noted, data are reported as number (percentage) of participants
  4. b 3 categorized as other race
  5. c Participants selected intervention group at 6 month follow-up visit; if they did not attend this visit they were assigned to lifestyle group
  6. d Framingham risk scores calculated as percent chance of developing angina, having a myocardial infarction, or dying of coronary heart disease over a 10 year time frame
  7. e Carotenoid index, calculated as the sum of α-carotene, β-carotene,β-cryptoxanthin, and zeaxanthin. Data presented are for nonsmokers (n = 261). A higher index indicates greater fruit and vegetable consumption. Statistical tests performed on log-transformed data
  8. f Includes walking for transportation and exercise
  9. g Includes walking and other moderate and vigorous activity
  10. h Systolic and diastolic blood pressure results are also presented for participants in LS study only and participants in both LS and HBP studies