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Table 2 Multivariable predictors of HTLV-1 infection among 1889 Indigenous patients

From: Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type 1 infection in an Indigenous Australian population: epidemiological insights from a hospital-based cohort study

   Model 1a   Model 2a
  Odds ratio 95 % CI p-value Odds ratio 95 % CI p-value
Age (years) 1.03 1.02–1.04 <0.001 1.04 1.04–1.03 <0.001
Gender (0 = F,1 = M) 1.18 0.97–1.45 0.10 1.42 1.09–1.86 0.01
Residenceb       
 Remotec 1.00      
 Town Campd 1.04 0.80–1.36 0.77    
 Urbane 0.59 0.43–0.80 0.001    
 N/H 0.56 0.32–0.98 0.04    
 Tennant Creek 0.17 0.09–0.31 <0.001    
 Outside regionf 0.65 0.29–1.45 0.29    
Residence regiong       
 North     1.00   
 East     1.53 0.8–2.8 0.17
 South     10.7 7.3–15.5 <0.001
 West     4.4 3.1–6.2 <0.001
STIh 1.93 1.53–2.45 <0.001 1.42 1.04–1.97 0.036
Patient Group STI interactioni  
Group 1 (n = 1431) 1.00    1.00   
Group 2 (n = 334) 0.80 0.60–1.05 0.11 0.99 0.71–1.39 0.95
Group 3 (n = 124) 0.89 0.60–1.34 0.59 0.71 0.39–1.28 0.26
  1. Abbreviations: N/H residence in a nursing home, STI sexually transmitted infections
  2. aThe independent effects of residence and residence region were assessed separately in order to avoid posssible colinearity
  3. bIncluding 1882 subjects whose place of residence was known
  4. cResidence in a remote community >80 km from Alice Springs, but not in the township of Tennant Creek
  5. dResidence in a town camp in the Alice Springs township
  6. eResidence in Alice Springs township, but not in a town camp
  7. fResidence outside the combined areas of central Australia and the adjacent Aboriginal lands of South Australia and Western Australia
  8. gIncluding 1233 subjects who resided in remote communities categorized according to quadrants relative to Alice Springs
  9. hAny positive test during the study period among subjects aged 15–45 years who were tested
  10. iReasons for HTLV-1 testing included: a) to investigate the cause of conditions thought to be HTLV-1 associated (Group 1, n = 1431), b) as part of a blood borne virus surveillance program among patients receiving haemodialysis (Group 2, n = 334) and c) after enrollment as subjects without current clinical evidence of HTLV-1 associated conditions in HTLV-1 pathogenesis studies (Group 3, n = 124). To demonstrate that these groups can be combined for the purposes of analysis, we determined whether there was a difference in the association between HTLV-1 and STI across groups using a Group x STI interaction term. This was non-significant, indicating that the estimated association with STI is the same across all groups, which were therefore combined for analysis. Data for HTLV-1 serostatus according to age and gender for each group is presented in Table 3