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Table 4 Predictors of pregnancy alcohol use: Tiers 1 and 2

From: “Did you ever drink more?” A detailed description of pregnant women’s drinking patterns

  PAE tier 1 PAE tier 2
PAE Any alcohol in pregnancya Abstinent after trimester 1a Drank throughouta
  N AOR 95 % CI p value N AOR 95 % CI p value N AOR 95 % CI p value
Participants 1318     873     911    
Maternal age            
 <30 years 421 Reference   312 Reference   276 Reference  
 30–34 years 539 1.40 (1.04–1.88) 0.03 327 1.13 (0.81–1.59) 0.47 388 1.85 (1.29–2.66) <0.01
 > = 35 years 358 1.28 (0.92–1.77) 0.14 234 1.18 (0.81–1.71) 0.39 247 1.37 (0.92–2.05) 0.12
Pregnancy planning            
 Yes 1004 Reference   662 Reference   719 Reference  
 No 314 1.89 (1.40–2.55) <0.001 211 2.05 (1.47–2.87) <0.001 192 1.60 (1.10–2.33) 0.01
Parity            
 > = 1 689 Reference   438 Reference   506 Reference  
 0 629 1.03 (0.80–1.33) 0.80 435 1.39 (1.04–1.86) 0.03 405 0.75 (0.55–1.03) 0.08
Smoking            
 No 1091 Reference   750 Reference   751 Reference  
 Yes 227 1.94 (1.36–2.77) <0.001 123 1.33 (0.88–2.02) 0.17 160 3.05 (2.00–4.67) <0.001
Perceived alcohol effect            
 Normal 652 Reference   388 Reference   442 Reference  
 Very/quickly 551 0.47 (0.37–0.61) <0.001 409 0.58 (0.44–0.78) <0.001 387 0.38 (0.28–0.52) <0.001
 Very/slowly 115 0.78 (0.50–1.20) 0.26 76 0.74 (0.44–1.24) 0.25 82 0.89 (0.52–1.53) 0.68
Household income            
 <$40,000 168 Reference   131 Reference   109 Reference  
 $40–100,000 578 1.16 (0.80–1.68) 0.44 394 0.93 (0.62–1.42) 0.75 410 1.53 (0.94–2.51) 0.09
 >$100,000 522 1.71 (1.15–2.54) <0.01 313 1.32 (0.84–2.05) 0.23 356 2.43 (1.45–4.04) <0.01
 Missing 50 0.96 (0.48–1.90) 0.91 35 0.75 (0.34–1.66) 0.48 36 1.57 (0.65–3.79) 0.31
BMI            
 Normal 853 Reference   533 Reference   602 Reference  
 Overweight 258 0.87 (0.63–1.18) 0.37 178 1.03 (0.72–1.47) 0.87 172 0.70 (0.48–1.03) 0.07
 Obese 207 0.53 (0.38–0.75) <0.001 162 0.76 (0.52–1.11) 0.16 137 0.35 (0.22–0.54) <0.001
Maternal education            
 Secondary 230 Reference   162 Reference   159 Reference  
 Trade/Diploma 339 1.04 (0.72–1.50) 0.84 245 1.10 (0.73–1.67) 0.65 223 0.99 (0.62–1.58) 0.98
 Tertiary 749 1.48 (1.04–2.11) 0.03 466 1.22 (0.81–1.84) 0.35 529 1.88 (1.21–2.93) <0.01
Ethnicity            
 White 1109 Reference   694 Reference   770 Reference  
 Asian/other 209 0.38 (0.27–0.52) <0.001 179 0.61 (0.42–0.88) <0.01 141 0.19 (0.12–0.30) <0.001
  1. N: Sample size for multivariate analysis (i.e. number of cases with a complete set of predictors, except for income, where a ‘missing’ category was included because ~ 4 % of missing data)
  2. AOR (95 % CI): Odds ratio and 95 % confidence interval adjusted for all predictors shown in table. Control group is abstinence in pregnancy, but not lifetime abstainer. Results are in bold font where a significant difference was found. For predictor variables with more than two categories (maternal age, perceived alcohol effect, income, BMI and education), p values from likelihood ratio tests (not shown) were used to evaluate the predictors. Likelihood ratio p values were <0.01 in all bolded results
  3. a: Control group is abstinence in pregnancy, but not lifetime abstainer