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Table 3 Multivariate adjusted correlates of recommended physical activity status in rural South Asian children aged 5–14 years

From: Prevalence and correlates of achieving recommended physical activity levels among children living in rural South Asia—A multi-centre study

  Odds Ratio (95 % CI) (p-value)
Active mode of travel to school Leisure-time physical activity ≥1 h per day Sedentary activity ≤2 h per day
Age group
 5–9 years 1.0 (Ref) 1.0 (Ref) 1.0 (Ref)
 10–14 years 2.0 (1.3, 3.0) (p = 0.001) 0.7(0.4, 1.2) (p = 0.30) 0.6(0.4, 0.9) (p = 0.02)
Sex
 Boys 1.0 (Ref) 1.0 (Ref) 1.0 (Ref)
 Girls 1.7 (1.1, 2.5) (p = 0.01) 0.4(0.2, 0.6) (p < 0.0001) 0.7(0.4, 1.1) (p = 0.14)
Site
 Matlab 1.0 (Ref) 1.0 (Ref) 1.0 (Ref)
 Goa 1.2 (0.7, 2.1) (p = 0.43) 0.9(0.4, 1.7) (p = 0.80) 3.5(2.1, 6.1) (p < 0.0001)
 Chennai 1.1 (0.6, 1.9) (p = 0.71) 0.3(0.1, 0.6) (p < 0.0001) 2.5(1.5, 4.3) (p = 0.001)
Highest household education status
 0–5 years of education 1.0 (Ref) 1.0 (Ref) 1.0 (Ref)
 6 to 12 years of education 1.3 (0.8, 2.1) (p = 0.24) 1.2(0.6, 1.9) (p = 0.58) 0.6(0.3, 0.9) (p = 0.03)
 Graduate/Post graduate 0.8 (0.4, 1.6) (p = 0.59) 0.4(0.2, 0.9) (p = 0.03) 0.5(0.2, 1.0) (p = 0.07)
Socio-economic statusa (SES)
 Low 1.0 (Ref) 1.0 (Ref) 1.0 (Ref)
 Medium 0.7 (0.4, 1.2) (p = 0.21) 1.1(0.6, 2.0) (p = 0.59) 0.9(0.5, 1.6) (p = 0.90)
 High 0.9 (0.5, 1.6) (p = 0.87) 1.0(0.5, 2.0) (p = 0.78) 0.6(0.3, 1.1) (p = 0.17)
Leisure-time physical activity
(at school + at home)
  < 1 h/day 1.0 (Ref) NA 1.0 (Ref)
  ≥ 1 h/day 1.0 (0.6, 1.7) (p = 0.85)   0.9(0.6, 1.5) (p = 0.9)
Sedentary activity
  ≤ 2 h/day 1.0 (Ref) 1.0 (Ref) NA
  > 2 h/day 1.2 (0.8, 1.8) (p = 0.34) 0.9(0.6, 1.6) (p = 0.97)
Mode of transport to school
 Active transport (walk/bicycle) NA 1.0 (Ref) 1.0 (Ref)
 Motorized transport   1.1(0.6, 1.7) (p = 0.82) 1.2(0.8, 1.8) (p = 0.32)
Fruit vegetable intake
  < 5servings/day 1.0 (Ref) 1.0 (Ref) 1.0 (Ref)
  ≥ 5servings/day 1.3 (0.7, 2.6) (p = 0.35) 0.7(0.3, 1.4) (p = 0.29) 0.5(0.2, 1.0) (p = 0.07)
Processed food intake
  < 1serving/day 1.0 (Ref) 1.0 (Ref) 1.0 (Ref)
  ≥ 1serving/day 1.0 (0.6, 1.7)(p = 0.82) 2.3(1.2, 4.1) (p = 0.006) 0.9(0.5, 1.4) (p = 0.73)
  1. aSES based on tertiles from total monthly expenditures for Indian sites and total household asset score for Matlab, Bangladesh; NA Not Applicable