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Table 4 Difference-in-difference analysis on male patients presenting to NHS hospital trusts with alcohol teams compared to NHS hospital trusts without - Estimated intervention effects for emergency hospital activity in the year before and the year after diagnosis (as mean per patient)

From: The impact of alcohol care teams on emergency secondary care use following a diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease - a national cohort study

  Hospital sites with an alcohol team (n = 3,290) Hospital sites with no alcohol team (n = 3,057)   
One year before diagnosis (SD) One year after diagnosis (SD) Difference (SE) One year before diagnosis (SD) One year after diagnosis (SD) Difference (SE) Difference in difference (95 % CI) P-value
Emergency admissions (all) 1.696 (1.800) 1.398 (2.412) −0.298 (0.040) 1.717 (1.994) 1.401 (2.435) −0.315 (0.042) 0.018 (−0.095 to 0.131) 0.758
Emergency admissions (alcohol related) 1.340 (1.490) 1.114 (2.096) −0.226 (0.035) 1.316 (1.578) 1.129 (2.146) −0.187 (0.037) −0.039 (−0.139 to 0.060) 0.442
Emergency department attendances 1.516 (3.353) 1.763 (5.207) 0.247 (0.060) 1.144 (2.518) 1.343 (3.613) 0.199 (0.062) 0.048 (−0.120 to 0.217) 0.575
  1. Data are mean number per patient (standard deviation) and difference (standard error). P-value is from the linear mixed model. CI confidence interval
  2. Note: The ‘one year before diagnosis’ field includes the index admission which accounts for the mean number of emergency admissions being above one in this time period