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Table 4 Associations between measures of the neighbourhood built environment and objectively measured physical activitya,b

From: The association of the neighbourhood built environment with objectively measured physical activity in older adults with and without lower limb osteoarthritis

  Total PA in minutes/day Light PA in minutes/day Low-light PA in minutes/day High-light PA in minutes/day Moderate to vigorous PA in minutes/day
  B (SE) B (SE) B (SE) B (SE) B (SE)
Street connectivity
Number of street connections per km 2
 Model 1 0.01 (0.05) 0.02 (0.05) 0.06 (0.04) −0.04 (0.02) −0.01 (0.02)
 Model 2 0.08 (0.05) 0.07 (0.05) 0.07 (0.04)¥ 0.01 (0.02) 0.01 (0.02)
Distance to health care resources in km      
General practice      
 Model 1 9.44 (5.19) 8.84 (4.78) 2.29 (3.48) 6.55 (2.14) 0.61 (247)
 Model 2 1.75 (4.92)c 2.64 (4.86)c 0.71 (3.40) 1.97 (2.15)c −0.88 (1.51)
 Model 3 5.04 (5.23)c 5.65 (4.95)c 3.37 (3.60) 2.27 (2.29)c −0.62 (1.61)
General practice center      
 Model 1 0.19 (0.90) 0.19 (0.83) −0.40 (0.60) 0.59 (0.37) −0.01 (0.25)
 Model 2 0.49 (1.15) 0.59 (1.09) 0.31 (0.79) 0.29 (0.50) −0.10 (0.35)
 Model 3 0.76 (1.16) 0.83 (1.10) 0.53 (0.79) 0.30 (0.51) −0.07 (0.35)
Pharmacy      
 Model 1 7.04 (4.46) 6.56 (4.10) 0.99 (2.98) 5.57 (1.83) 0.48 (1.27)
 Model 2 0.22 (4.27)c 0.73 (4.04)c −1.30 (2.95) 2.03 (1.86)c −0.51 (1.30)
 Model 3 3.61 (4.67)c 3.78 (4.42)c 1.25 (3.22) 2.48 (2.05)c −0.20 (1.44)
Hospital with an outside clinic      
 Model 1 −0.25 (1.30) −0.41 (1.20) −1.49 (0.86) 1.08 (0.54)¥ 0.16 (0.37)
 Model 2 −0.66 (1.46) 0.38 (1.38) −0.85 (1.00) 1.22 (0.63) 0.28 (0.44)
 Model 3 1.00 (1.47) 0.67 (1.39) −0.58 (1.01) 1.26 (0.64) 0.33 (0.45)
Hospital without an outside clinic      
 Model 1 0.14 (0.87) 0.15 (0.80) −0.45 (0.58) 0.59 (0.36) −0.01 (0.25)
 Model 2 0.47 (1.13) 0.59 (1.07) 0.23 (0.78) 0.35 (0.49) −0.11 (0.34)
 Model 3 0.70 (1.13) 0.79 (1.07) 0.43 (0.78) 0.36 (0.50) −0.09 (0.35)
Physiotherapist in km
 Model 1 9.41 (6.50) 10.59 (5.97) 1.41 (4.34) 9.19 (2.66) −1.18 (1.84)
 Model 2 0.52 (6.27) 3.83 (5.93) −0.25 (4.32) 4.10 (2.72)c −3.32 (1.90)
 Model 3 4.47 (6.68) 7.78 (6.31) 3.03 (4.59) 4.72 (2.91)c −3.30 (2.04)
Distance to retail resources in km      
Supermarket      
 Model 1 7.44 (4.83) 5.67 (4.45) −0.22 (3.23) 5.89 (1.99) 1.77 (1.37)
 Model 2 1.60 (4.66)c 0.73 (4.40)c −1.60 (3.21) 2.35 (2.03)c 0.87 (1.42)
 Model 3 5.74 (5.12)c 4.18 (4.85)c 1.24 (3.53) 2.91 (2.25)c 1.54 (1.57)
Grocery store      
 Model 1 0.26 (3.25) −1.48 (2.99) −3.40 (2.15) 1.92 (1.35) 1.74 (0.91)
 Model 2 −0.95 (3.26) −2.28 (3.08) −2.65 (2.24) 0.37 (1.42) 1.18 (0.98)c
 Model 3 1.22 (3.54) −0.65 (3.35) −1.14 (2.43) 0.49 (1.55) 1.73 (1.06)c
Department store      
 Model 1 −0.72 (1.24) 0.65 (1.14) −1.05 (0.82) 0.41 (0.52) −0.07 (0.35)
 Model 2 1.54 (1.49) 1.73 (1.40) 1.27 (1.02) 0.47 (0.65) −0.19 (0.45)
 Model 3 1.51 (1.48) 1.71 (1.40) 1.24 (1.02) 0.47 (0.65) −0.19 (0.46)
Distance to meeting places in km      
Pub      
 Model 1 −1.60 (3.10) −2.64 (2.85) −3.68 (2.05) 1.04 (1.29) 1.05 (0.87)
 Model 2 −2.00 (3.11) −2.48 (2.94) −2.62 (2.14) 0.15 (1.36) 0.48 (0.95)
 Model 3 −0.08 (3.40) −0.94 (3.22) −1.16 (2.33) 0.22 (1.49) 0.86 (1.04)
Cafeteria      
 Model 1 7.55 (5.74) 7.01 (5.28) −0.37 (3.83) 7.38 (2.35) 0.55 (1.63)
 Model 2 0.28 (5.46) 1.15 (5.16) −2.03 (3.76) 3.17 (2.37) −0.87 (1.66)
 Model 3 5.22 (6.12) 5.71 (5.79) 1.59 (4.21) 4.12 (2.67) −0.49 (1.88)
Restaurant      
 Model 1 4.13 (7.70) 6.15 (7.08) −3.50 (5.12) 9.64 (3.15) −2.02 (2.17)
 Model 2 −8.71 (7.57) −3.75 (7.18) −6.43 (5.22) 2.68 (3.31) −4.96 (2.29)
 Model 3 −6.08 (7.84) −1.17 (7.43) −4.11 (5.38) 2.94 (3.43) −4.91 (2.38)
Distance to public transport in km      
Distance to train station in km      
 Model 1 −0.32 (0.82) −0.59 (0.76) −1.10 (0.54)¥ 0.51 (0.34) 0.28 (0.23)
 Model 2 −0.64 (0.89) −0.94 (0.84) −1.31 (0.60) 0.37 (0.39) 0.30 (0.27)
 Model 3 −0.65 (0.88) −0.94 (0.83) −1.31 (0.60) 0.37 (0.39) 0.30 (0.27)
Distance to important transfer station      
 Model 1 0.95 (0.57)† 0.97 (0.53) 0.48 (0.38) 0.49 (0.24)¥ −0.02 (0.16)
 Model 2 0.62 (0.59) 0.66 (0.56) 0.46 (0.41) 0.19 (0.26)¥ −0.04 (0.18)
 Model 3 0.59 (0.59) 0.63 (0.56) 0.44 (0.41) 0.19 (0.26)¥ −0.04 (0.18)
  1. a Abbreviations: B unstandardized coefficient, SE standard error, km kilometer, PA Physical activity; in bold: p < 0.01; ¥: 0.01 ≥ p < 0.05
  2. b Model 1 (based on 247 participants): adjusted for age and sex (reference category: men)
  3. Model 2 (based on 226 participants): additionally adjusted for partner status (reference category: no partner), educational level (reference category: lower educated than secondary education), urbanization grade (reference category: rural area), Body Mass Index, number of chronic diseases (reference category: no chronic diseases other than lower limb osteoarthritis (LLOA)), anxiety (reference category: not anxious), depression (reference category: not depressed), functional limitations, wear time of accelerometer, and LLOA (reference category: no LLOA)
  4. Model 3 (based on 226 participants): this model included all confounders and additionally adjusted for street connectivity
  5. c There was a significant interaction effect of this neighbourhood built environment measure with LLOA on the PA outcome measure. Therefore, the association in this model was not additionally adjusted for LLOA