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Table 4 Risk factors for severe stunting in children aged 0-23 months

From: Determinants of stunting in Indonesian children: evidence from a cross-sectional survey indicate a prominent role for the water, sanitation and hygiene sector in stunting reduction

Factors   Severely stunted (%) N Unadjusted (bivariate) Adjusted (multivariate)
    OR (95 % CI) P OR (95 % CI) P
Sex Boys 8.1 689 1.61 (0.97 - 2.67) 0.07 1.77 (1.07 - 2.93) 0.03
Girls 5.3 677 1.00    1.00   
Age of child 12 - 23 months 8.8 716 3.34 (1.64 - 6.79) 0.002 3.27 (1.65 - 6.47) < 0.001
6-11 months 5.9 341 2.17 (0.91 - 5.15)   1.92 (0.82 - 4.48)  
0-5 months 2.9 309 1.00    1.00   
Breastfeeding within one hour of birth No 8.4 438 1.47 (0.94 - 2.29) 0.09    
Yes 5.9 928 1.00      
Age-appropriate feeding No 8.3 812 1.52 (0.96 - 2.41) 0.07    
Yes 4.5 554 1.00      
Mother’s age ≥40 years 9.8 92 0.87 (0.27 - 2.88) 0.65    
30-39 years 5.6 516 0.57 (0.21 - 1.52)     
20-29 years 6.8 704 0.63 (0.25 - 1.59)     
<20 years 11.1 54 1.00      
Mother’s education No or incomplete primary 19.4 196 6.81 (3.59 - 12.91) < 0.001    
Completed primary 8.3 229 2.57 (1.38 - 4.77)     
Completed junior high 5.1 333 1.77 (0.97 - 3.23)     
Completed senior high 3.0 608 1.00      
Number of household members > 4 7.7 816 1.39 (0.82 - 2.37) 0.22    
≤ 4 5.3 550 1.00      
Wealth quintile Lowest 17.0 294 8.62 (3.36 - 22.12) < 0.001 8.48 (3.19 - 22.57) < 0.001
Second 6.1 277 2.80 (1.08 - 7.28)   2.93 (1.12 - 7.70)  
Third 3.3 273 1.49 (0.53 - 4.22)   1.66 (0.59 - 4.69)  
Fourth 3.9 256 1.77 (0.62 - 5.08)   1.89 (0.65 - 5.45)  
Highest 2.3 266 1.00    1.00   
Sanitation Unimproved 10.5 532 2.20 (1.40 - 3.47) 0.001    
Improved 4.3 834 1.00      
Safe disposal of child’s faeces Unsafe 8.9 773 1.92 (1.19 - 3.12) 0.008    
Safe 3.9 593 1.00      
Use of soap for hand washing Not use soap 10.0 611 2.04 (1.28 - 3.24) 0.003    
Use soap 4.1 755 1.00      
Water source Unimproved 6.6 935 1.04 (0.57 - 1.93) 0.89    
Improved 7.0 431 1.00      
Water treatment Untreated 14.7 136 2.19 (1.20 - 3.98) 0.011    
Treated 5.9 1230 1.00      
Number of ANC visits of mother during pregnancy < 4 12.1 91 1.35 (0.45 - 4.02) 0.59    
≥ 4 6.4 1275 1.00      
Doctor/midwife provided ANC to mother during pregnancy No 21.9 64 3.23 (1.51 - 6.92) 0.003    
Yes 6.0 1302 1.00      
ANC in private or public health facility No 25.0 48 4.04 (1.68 - 9.70) 0.002 2.58 (1.19 - 5.58) 0.02
Yes 6.1 1318 1.00      
Mother participates in decisions on HH food purchases Yes 6.8 1211 0.91 (0.47 - 1.76) 0.77    
No 6.5 155 1.00      
Mother participates in decisions on what food is cooked for HH Yes 7.3 1223 3.09 (1.13 - 8.44) 0.028    
No 2.1 143 1.00      
Mother participates in decisions on food given to child Yes 6.8 1300 1.11 (0.40 - 3.08) 0.85    
No 6.1 66 1.00      
Mother participates in decisions on seeking health care for child Yes 6.9 1180 1.22 (0.64 - 2.34) 0.55    
No 5.9 186 1.00