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Table 3 Risk factors for total stunting in children aged 0-23 months

From: Determinants of stunting in Indonesian children: evidence from a cross-sectional survey indicate a prominent role for the water, sanitation and hygiene sector in stunting reduction

Factors   Stunted (%) N Unadjusted (bivariate) Adjusted (multivariate)
    OR (95 % CI) P OR (95 % CI) P
Sex Boys 30.9 689 1.29 (0.99 - 1.68) 0.06 1.45 (1.11 - 1.90) 0.007
Girls 25.8 677 1.00    1.00   
Age of child 12 - 23 months 37.7 716 4.00 (2.72 - 5.87) < 0.001 4.40 (2.97 - 6.53) < 0.001
6-11 months 22.6 341 1.91 (1.27 - 2.88)   1.97 (1.30 - 2.99)  
0-5 months 13.3 309 1.00    1.00   
Breastfeeding within one hour of birth No 30.1 438 1.14 (0.87 - 1.50) 0.34    
Yes 27.6 928 1.00      
Age-appropriate feeding No 31.3 812 1.39 (1.09 - 1.77) 0.008    
Yes 24.2 554 1.00      
Mother’s age ≥ 40 years 28.3 92 1.26 (0.61 - 2.63) 0.79    
30-39 years 29.3 516 1.38 (0.73 - 2.60)     
20-29 years 28.1 704 1.29 (0.70 - 2.37)     
< 20 years 24.1 54       
Mother’s education No or incomplete primary 43.4 196 2.53 (1.77 - 3.62) <0.001    
Completed primary 31.0 229 1.48 (1.04 - 2.12)     
Completed junior high 27.6 333 1.28 (0.96 - 1.72)     
Completed senior high 23.0 608 1.00      
Number of household members > 4 28.9 816 1.03 (0.83 - 1.29) 0.77    
≤ 4 27.6 550 1.00      
Wealth quintile Lowest 40.1 294 2.84 (1.84 - 4.40) < 0.001 2.30 (1.43 - 3.68) 0.004
Second 31.0 277 1.89 (1.33 - 2.70)   1.85 (1.26 - 2.72)  
Third 27.1 273 1.56 (1.06 - 2.30)   1.68 (1.11 - 2.55)  
Fourth 23.0 256 1.26 (0.83 - 1.91)   1.31 (0.85 - 2.04)  
Highest 19.2 266 1.00    1.00   
Sanitation Unimproved 35.3 532 1.71 (1.37 - 2.15) <0.001 1.27 (0.99 - 1.63) 0.06
Improved 24.0 834 1.00    1.00   
Safe disposal of child’s faeces Unsafe 29.6 773 1.10 (0.87 - 1.40) 0.41    
Safe 26.8 593 1.00      
Use of soap for hand washing Not use soap 31.6 611 1.29 (1.00 - 1.67) 0.05    
Use soap 25.8 755 1.00      
Water source Unimproved 27.3 935 0.86 (0.67 - 1.10) 0.23    
Improved 30.9 431 1.00      
Water treatment Untreated 38.2 136 1.59 (1.08 - 2.34) 0.019 0.89 (0.49 - 1.61) 0.70
Treated 27.3 1230 1.00    1.00   
Number of ANC visits of mother during pregnancy < 4 40.7 91 1.70 (1.12 - 2.60) 0.013    
≥ 4 27.5 1275 1.00      
Doctor/midwife provided ANC to mother during pregnancy No 45.3 64 2.07 (1.29 - 3.33) 0.003    
Yes 27.6 1302 1.00      
ANC in private or public health facility No 45.8 48 2.12 (1.16 - 3.87) 0.014    
Yes 27.8 1318 1.00      
Mother participates in decisions on HH food purchases Yes 28.8 1211 1.21 (0.78 - 1.87) 0.39    
No 25.2 155 1.00      
Mother participates in decisions on what food is cooked for HH Yes 29.2 1223 1.50 (0.95 - 2.38) 0.08    
No 21.7 143 1.00      
Mother participates in decisions on food given to child Yes 28.5 1300 1.18 (0.61 - 2.27) 0.63    
No 25.8 66 1.00      
Mother participates in decisions on seeking health care for child Yes 28.7 1180 1.13 (0.79 - 1.61) 0.50    
No 26.3 186 1.00      
Sanitation x water treatment        2.81 (1.32 - 5.97) 0.007