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Table 2 Regression analyses of the association between adoption of CDC HIV pre-test counseling guidelines and availability of HCV testing (HCV testing vs. No HCV testing)

From: Spillover effects of HIV testing policies: changes in HIV testing guidelines and HCV testing practices in drug treatment programs in the United States

  No HCV testing options offereda HCV testing offered P-value Unadjusted Odds Ratio (95 % CI)b Adjusted Odds Ratio (95 % CI)b
State-level legislation enables eliminating HIV pretest counseling requirement   <0.01   
  No 44 (24.7) 134 (75.3)   1 1
  Yes 26 (12.7) 179 (87.3)   2.26 (1.32, 3.86) 0.87 (0.19, 4.07)
Prevalence of injection drug users   0.07   
   < 25 % 33 (24.8) 100 (75.2)   1 1
  25-74 % 24 (14.9) 137 (85.1)   1.88 (1.05, 3.39) 2.21 (0.97, 5.04)
   ≥ 75 % 13 (15.5) 71 (84.5)   1.80 (0.89, 3.67) 1.44 (0.51, 4.11)
African-American patients   0.05   
   < 10 % 24 (13.9) 148 (86.1)   1 1
   ≥ 10 % 46 (21.8) 165 (78.2)   0.58 (0.34, 0.99) 0.85 (0.37, 1.94)
Hispanic patients   0.17   
   < 10 % 41 (20.9) 155 (79.1)   1 1
   ≥ 10 % 29 (15.5) 158 (84.5)   1.44 (0.85, 2.44) 1.27 (0.54, 2.97)
Revenue from federal government   0.85   
  None 50 (18.5) 220 (81.5)   1 1
   ≥ 1 % 20 (17.7) 93 (82.3)   1.06 (0.60, 1.87) 1.15 (0.53, 2.49)
Revenue from private insurance   0.18   
  None 35 (16.0) 184 (84.0)   1 1
   ≥ 1 % 35 (21.3) 129 (78.7)   0.70 (0.42, 1.18) 1.11 (0.51, 2.43)
Human resources     
  Log Staff-to-patient ratio, mean (SD) -3.56 (0.76) -3.31 (0.72) 0.01 1.53 (1.09, 2.16) 1.30 (0.82, 2.06)
CARF accreditation   0.01   
  No 45 (23.2) 149 (76.8)   1 1
  Yes 25 (13.2) 164 (86.8   1.98 (1.16, 3.39) 2.23 (0.98, 5.08)
Ownership   0.78   
  Private not-for-profit 36 (19.6) 148 (80.4)   1 1
  Private for profit 24 (16.6) 121 (83.4)   1.22 (0.69, 2.17) 0.91 (0.40, 2.08)
  Public 10 (18.5) 44 (81.5)   1.07 (0.49, 2.33) 0.97 (0.33, 2.80)
Hospital affiliation   0.09   
  No 64 (19.7) 261 (80.3)   1 1
  Yes 6 (10.3) 52 (89.7)   2.12 (0.87, 5.17) 3.39 (1.13, 10.2)
Methods of treatment   <0.01   
  Methadone only 45 (20.7) 172 (79.3)   1 1
  Buprenorphine only 22 (23.2) 73 (76.8)   0.87 (0.49, 1.55) 1.55 (0.62, 3.88)
  Methadone + Buprenorphine 3 (4.2) 68 (95.8)   5.93 (1.78, 19.8) 6.63 (1.61, 27.4)
Time    <0.01   
  2005 50 (26.7) 137 (73.3)   1 1
  2011 20 (10.2) 176 (89.8)   3.21 (1.82, 5.65) 3.20 (0.87, 11.7)
    N 70 (18.3) 313 (81.7)   383 292c
  1. Notes: apercentages in parentheses are row percentages; badjusted odds ratios are obtained from a logistic regression in which all variables in the table are included as independent variables. Standard errors are adjusted for clustering of observations by state. cOnly states in which laws changed between 2005 & 2011 are included in model with state-level fixed effects. p-value derived from a Wald test showed that at least one of the state dummies included in the model is significant at p < 0.05