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Table 1 Methods for estimating medical costs attributable to smoking (T)

From: Medical costs and quality-adjusted life years associated with smoking: a systematic review

First author, year published Source for lifetime medical costs attributable to smoking Discounted at 3 % Assessment of uncertainty
Ahmad, 2005 [13] Hodgson, 1992 [39] Yes No
aMedical Expenditure Panel Survey [66]
Ahmad, 2005 [14] Hodgson, 1992 [39] Yes No
aMedical Expenditure Panel Survey [66]
Ahmad, 2005 [15] Hodgson, 1992 [39] No No
Medical Expenditure Panel Survey [66]
Ahmad, 2008 [16] Hodgson, 1992 [39] Not stated No
aMedical Expenditure Panel Survey [66]
Cromwell, 1997 [18] Did not include lifetime medical costs associated with smoking; included discussion N/A N/A
Holtgrave, 2009 [21] Wang, 2001 [38] Yes Yes
Sloan, 2004 [45]
Warner, 2004 [43]
Javitz, 2004 [23] Did not include lifetime medical costs associated with smoking; included discussion N/A N/A
Javitz, 2011 [24] Did not include lifetime medical costs associated with smoking; included discussion N/A N/A
Kahn, 2008 [25] Kaiser Permanente Southern California (no citation given) Yes Yes
The Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group [67]
Keeler, 2002 [26] Did not include lifetime medical costs associated smoking; did not include discussion N/A N/A
Knight, 2010 [27] Halpern, 2003 [68] Yes Yes
Kutikova, 2005 [69]
Tsevat, 2001 [70]
Taylor, 1996 [71]
Stanford, 1999 [72]
McMahon, 2011 [29] Cipriano, 2010 [73] Yes Yes
SEER-Medicare linked data (no citation given)
Ruger, 2008 [31] Gold, 1996 [41] bYes Yes
Cromwell, 1997 [18]
Fiscella, 1996 [20]
Rogers, 1991 [40]
Miller, 2001 [74]
Solberg, 2006 [34] Musich, 2003 [75] Yes Yes
Keehan, 2004 [76]
Hoffman, 2001 [77]
Tengs, 2001 [35] Hodgson, 1992 [39] Yes Yes
Tran, 2002 [36] Did not include lifetime medical costs associated smoking; did not include discussion N/A N/A
Villanti, 2012 [37] Hodgson, 1992 [39] Yes Yes
Warner, 2004 [43]
Cromwell, 1997 [18]
Wang, 2001 [38] Hodgson, 1992 [39] Yes Yes
Manning, 1989 [44]
  1. aNo citation was given; “Medical Expenditure Panel Survey” was only referenced in the text
  2. bStates that medical costs were discounted but does not specify at 3 %. We assume a 3 % discount rate was used because the paper appears to reference the U.S. Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine guidelines for performing the analysis