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Table 4 Bivariate associations between predictor variables (age 9 months to 7 years) and obesity in British children with and without intellectual disability at age 11

From: Obesity in British children with and without intellectual disability: cohort study

  Intellectual disability (OR (with 95 % CI)/p) No intellectual disability (OR (with 95 % CI)/p)
Child Ethnicity   
 White 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
 Mixed 2.74 (0.96–7.85) 1.43** (1.46–1.77)
 Indian 0.98 (0.15–6.70) 1.25 (0.94–1.68)
 Pakistani/Bangladeshi 1.67 (0.98–2.84) 1.58*** (1.31–2.38)
 Black/Black British 2.51*(1.17–5.36) 1.95*** (1.60–2.38)
 Other n/a 0.92 (0.647–1.32)
Child Birth Weight (high) 0.67 (0.9–1.16) 1.21*** (1.11–1.33)
Child Nutrition   
 Early introduction of solids 1.35 (0.85–2.14) 1.38*** (1.24–1.52)
 Low fruit consumption (age 5) 0.57* (0.33–0.98) 1.26*** (1.13–1.40)
 Low fruit consumption (age 7) 1.29 (0.75–2.24) 1.24** (1.10–1.40)
 High caloriebetween-meal snacks (age 5) 0.84 (0.53–1.33) 1.20** (1.06–1.36)
 Does not eat breakfast every day (age 5) 1.13 (0.64–1.98) 1.82*** (1.51–2.20)
 Does not eat breakfast every day (age 7) 1.80 (0.98–3.31) 1.52*** (1.26–1.82)
Child Participation in Sport   
 Low participation (age 5) 0.83 (0.54–1.29) 1.39*** (1.28–1.52)
 Low participation (age 7) 0.95 (0.57–1.60) 1.32*** (1.17–1.49)
TV Watching & Playing Computer Games   
 High participation (age 3, TV only) 0.95 (0.60–1.51) 1.22** (1.09–1.37)
 High participation (age 5, TV or computer games) 1.02 (0.65–1.61) 1.38*** (1.24–1.54)
 High participation (age 7, TV or computer games) 1.32 (0.82–2.12) 1.30*** (1.16–1.45)
Exposure to Being Bullied   
 Age 3 1.91 (0.80–4.53) 1.52* (1.07–2.15)
 Age 5 2.38 (0.95–5.96) 1.31 (0.90–1.91)
 Age 7 1.50 (0.49–4.57) 1.77*** (1.40–2.24)
Maternal Obesity   
 No occasion 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
 One or two occasions 1.53 (0.92–2.53) 2.74*** (2.44–3.07)
 Three to five occasions 5.48*** (3.03–9.93) 3.76*** (3.33–4.25)
Maternal Smoking 0.88 (0.60–1.29) 1.32*** (1.21–1.43)
Maternal Educational Attainment   
 NVQ (L3-5) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
 NVQ (L2) 1.52 (0.81–2.86) 1.55*** (1.40–1.72)
 NVQ (L1 or none) 1.16 (0.65–2.10) 1.75*** (1.57–1.94)
 Overseas qualifications only 3.95** (1.49–10.50) 1.41** (1.11–1.79)
Single Parent Family 1.26 (0.86–1.84) 1.28*** (1.18–1.40)
Household Income Poverty 1.47 (0.75–2.89) 1.41*** (1.28–1.54)
High Area Deprivation 1.23 (0.78–1.93) 1.53*** (1.30–1.81)
  1. ORs in bold indicate medium or large effect size
  2. OR odds ratio, p probability
  3. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001