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Table 3 Univariate predictors of a positive treatment outcome (ie non-problem drinking according to the AUDIT-C cut-offs) at 12-month follow-up and treatment retention

From: Treatment outcome, treatment retention, and their predictors among clients of five outpatient alcohol treatment centres in Switzerland

Client characteristic at treatment admission Non-problem drinking at 12-month follow-up OR (95 % CI) Treatment retention OR (95 % CI)
Sex   
 Male (Ref.)   
 Female 0.93 (0.64–1.35) 0.83 (0.61–1.11)
Age in years 1.02 (1.01–1.04)** 1.02 (1.00–1.03)**
Nationality   
 Swiss (Ref.)   
 Other 1.69 (0.91–3.14) 0.91 (0.60–1.38)
Educational level   
 Low (Ref.)   
 Medium 1.20 (0.68–2.12) 1.01 (0.65–1.57)
 High 0.47 (0.24–0.91)* 1.29 (0.77–2.18)
Means of subsistence   
 Own income (Ref.)   
 Savings or pension 0.68 (0.42–1.13) 0.62 (0.41–0.92)*
 Social welfare 1.24 (0.75–2.06) 0.43 (0.30–0.63)**
 Partner or family members 0.71 (0.35–1.43) 0.92 (0.53–1.59)
Partnership status   
 No or temporary partnership (Ref.)   
 Stable, living apart 1.34 (0.71–2.56) 0.95 (0.59–1.51)
 Stable, living together 1.29 (0.88–1.91) 1.63 (1.19–2.23)**
Children living in the household   
 No (Ref.)   
 Yes 1.01 (0.62–1.67) 1.09 (0.71–1.65)
Self-rated general health   
 Excellent/very good (Ref.)   
 Good 0.58 (0.38–0.89)* 0.58 (0.42–0.81)**
 Poor 0.67 (0.41–1.10) 0.52 (0.35–0.77)**
Life satisfaction (score 10–40) 1.07 (1.04–1.11)** 1.09 (1.07–1.12)**
Problem drinking according to AUDIT-C cut-offs   
 No (Ref.)   
 Yes 0.18 (0.11–0.28)** 0.66 (0.48–0.90)**
Drinking goal   
 Abstinence (Ref.)   
 I do not want to restrict myself 0.43 (0.09–1.98) 2.50 (0.50–12.58)
 Controlled drinking 0.23 (0.16–0.35)** 1.04 (0.76–1.40)
 Have not yet decided 0.35 (0.18–0.70)** 0.69 (0.41–1.18)
Admission to respective alcohol treatment centre   
 First admission (Ref.)   
 Second or further admission 0.58 (0.40-0.86)** 0.71 (0.52–0.97)*
Treatment assignment   
 Own initiative (Ref.)   
 Partner, family, or friends 2.46 (1.37–4.44)** 0.88 (0.55–1.41)
 Health institution 2.08 (1.34–3.24)** 1.00 (0.71–1.43)
 Social service 1.23 (0.47–3.25) 0.49 (0.25–0.98)*
 Judge 4.07 (2.05–8.09)** 2.55 (1.50–4.32)**
 Employer or teacher 3.29 (1.23–8.77)* 1.85 (0.81–4.22)
Aftercare following alcohol withdrawal treatment   
 No (Ref.)   
 Yes 1.58 (0.94–2.64) 0.65 (0.44–0.96)*
  1. AUDIT-C cut-offs for problem drinking were ≥5 and ≥4 for men and women, respectively
  2. Notes: AUDIT-C consumption items of the alcohol use disorders identification test, OR odds ratio, 95 % CI 95 % confidence interval, Ref. reference category
  3. *p < .05; **p < .01