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Table 4 Factors and items from the proposed scale and original factors

From: Validation of the comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire in parents of preschool children in Brazil

Factors and Items from the proposed scale Original Factors [19]
Healthy Eating Guidance (HEG)  
HEG1. Do you encourage this child to eat healthy foods before unhealthy ones? a Encourage Balance and Variety
HEG2. I encourage my child to try new foods.b Encourage Balance and Variety
HEG3. I tell my child that healthy food tastes good.b Encourage Balance and Variety
HEG4. I encourage my child to eat a variety of foods.b Encourage Balance and Variety
HEG5. Most of the food I keep in the house is healthy.b Environment
HEG6. A variety of healthy foods are available to my child at each meal served at home.b Environment
HEG7. I involve my child in planning family meals.b Involvement
HEG8. I allow my child to help prepare family meals.b Involvement
HEG9. I encourage my child to participate in grocery shopping.b Involvement
HEG10. I model healthy eating for my child by eating healthy foods myself.b Modeling
HEG11. I try to eat healthy foods in front of my child, even if they are not my favorite.b Modeling
HEG12. I try to show enthusiasm about eating healthy foods.b Modeling
HEG13. I show my child how much I enjoy eating healthy foods.b Modeling
HEG14. I discuss with my child why it’s important to eat healthy foods.b Teaching about Nutrition
HEG15. I discuss with my child the nutritional value of foods.b Teaching about Nutrition
HEG16. I tell my child what to eat and what not to eat without explanation.R b Teaching about Nutrition
Monitoring (M)  
M1. How much do you keep track of the sweets (candy, ice cream, cake, pies, pastries) that your child eats?a Monitoring
M2. How much do you keep track of the snack food (potato chips, Doritos, cheese puffs) that your child eats?a Monitoring
M3. How much do you keep track of the high-fat foods that your child eats?a Monitoring
M4. How much do you keep track of the sugary drinks (soda/pop, kool-aid) this child drinks?a Monitoring
Restriction for Weight Control (RWC)  
RWC1. I encourage my child to eat less so he/she won’t get fat.b Restriction for Weight Control
RWC2. I give my child small helpings at meals to control his/her weight.b Restriction for Weight Control
RWC3. If my child eats more than usual at one meal, I try to restrict his/her eating at the next meal.b Restriction for Weight Control
RWC4. I restrict the food my child eats that might make him/her fat.b Restriction for Weight Control
RWC5. There are certain foods my child shouldn’t eat because they will make him/her fat.b Restriction for Weight Control
RWC6. I don’t allow my child to eat between meals because I don’t want him/her to get fat.b Restriction for Weight Control
RWC7. I often put my child on a diet to control his/her weight.b Restriction for Weight Control
Restriction for Health (RH)  
RH1. If I did not guide or regulate my child’s eating, s/he would eat too much of his/her favorite foods.b Restriction for Health
RH2. If I did not guide or regulate my child’s eating, he/she would eat too many junk foods.b Restriction for Health
RH3. I have to be sure that my child does not eat too much of his/her favorite foods.b Restriction for Health
RH4. I have to be sure that my child does not eat too many sweets (candy, ice cream, cake, or pastries).b Restriction for Health
RH5. I have to be sure that my child does not eat too many high-fat foods.b Restriction for Weight Control
Emotion Regulation/ Food as Reward (ERFR)  
ERFR1. When this child gets fussy, is giving him/her something to eat or drink the first thing you do?a Emotion Regulation
ERFR2. Do you give this child something to eat or drink if s/he is bored even if you think s/he is not hungry?a Emotion Regulation
ERFR3. Do you give this child something to eat or drink if s/he is upset even if you think s/he is not hungry?a Emotion Regulation
ERFR4. I offer sweets (candy, ice cream, cake, pastries) to my child as a reward for good behavior.b Food as Reward
ERFR5. I withhold sweets/dessert from my child in response to bad behavior.b Food as Reward
ERFR6. I offer my child his/her favorite foods in exchange for good behavior.b Food as Reward
Pressure (P)  
P1. My child should always eat all of the food on his/her plate.b Pressure
P2. If my child says, “I’m not hungry,” I try to get him/her to eat anyway.b Pressure
P3. If my child eats only a small helping, I try to get him/her to eat more.b Pressure
P4. When he/she says he/she is finished eating, I try to get my child to eat one more (two more, etc.) bites of food.b Pressure
Excluded Items  
1. Do you let your child eat whatever s/he wants?a Child Control
2. At dinner, do you let this child choose the foods s/he wants from what is served?a Child Control
3. If this child does not like what is being served, do you make something else?a Child Control
4. Do you allow this child to eat snacks whenever s/he wants?a Child Control
5. Do you allow this child to leave the table when s/he is full, even if your family is not done eating?a Child Control
14. I keep a lot of snack food (potato chips, Doritos, cheese puffs) in my house.b Environment
16. I keep a lot of sweets (candy, ice cream, cake, pies, pastries) in my house.b Environment
  1. Note. Numbers correspond to the original items’ order in: Musher-Eizenman D, Holub S. Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire: validation of a new measure of parental feeding practices. J Pediatr Psychol. 2007;32(8):960-72 [23]. Items marked with a a utilize a 5-point-likert scale “never, rarely, sometimes, mostly, always”. Items marked with b utilize a 5-point-likert scale “disagree, slightly disagree, neutral, slightly agree, agree”. Items marked with an R were reverse coded