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Table 4 HIV and general health messages and associated health belief model construct

From: Developing a mHealth intervention to promote uptake of HIV testing among African communities in the UK: a qualitative study

Week Message number Message Purpose HBM constructs
1 1 Hi xxxxxxxxxx! Welcome to Health4U! You’ll get text messages for 12 weeks. Thanks! African Institute H4U Welcome  
1 2 HIV is a virus which attacks the body. You can have it but not have symptoms. Without treatment you may develop AIDS. Visit www.nhs.uk/conditions/HIV/ HIV: Information on virus PSus
1 3 Stress is normal; why not try Nelson Mandela’s advice for dealing with life’s ups and downs? “Tread softly, breathe peacefully, laugh hysterically” General Health: Stress  
2 4 “Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food”. Why not try nuts, beans & whole grains as healthy snacks? General Health: Diet  
2 5 Did you know that 3.8 % of Africans living in Nottingham have HIV? Knowledge is power – respect your body, protect your community and get tested. HIV: Prevalence PSev, SE, CTA
2 5 (2nd option) HIV can affect anyone. Latest statistics show HIV is rising in Muslim communities. Protect your community and get an HIV test. HIV: Prevalence PSus, CTA
3 6 A word of wisdom: “Wellness is a connection of paths: knowledge and action.” If you know you have a problem, don’t delay in seeking help. General Health: Seek help  
3 7 HIV testing & treatment is free, confidential & anonymous for everyone! Visit http://nottingham.ac.uk/health4u for convenient places and times to get tested HIV: Info on where to get tested PBen, CTA
4 8 If you have HIV, the earlier you know, the sooner you can get treated. Get tested. It's free whatever your immigration status is. HIV: Immigration PBen, PBar, CTA
4 9 A person “who moves with each day is better than another who waits for luck”. Keep moving to keep fit! Anything helps: walking, dancing, even cleaning! General Health: Exercise  
5 10 A word of wisdom: “Be the change you want to see in the world”. Encourage the ones you love to stay healthy. General Health: Stay healthy  
5 11 Getting proper treatment soon after contracting HIV leads to a long and healthy life. Over half of Africans get diagnosed late – be on time & get a test! HIV: Benefits of testing PBen, PSev, CTA
6 12 “To keep the body in good health is a duty… otherwise we shall not be able to keep our mind strong and clear”. Eat well & exercise to keep calm and focused. General Health: Stress  
6 13 Did you know you can go online to order an HIV test that will be sent to your home? It’s free and private! Visit http://www.tht.org.uk/sexual-health HIV: Postal kit PBar, CTA
7 14 Lots of support is here for you if you have HIV. The NHS has a confidential HIV service & http://www.tht.org.uk has info on support groups in Nottingham. HIV: Support SE, PB
7 15 Proverb: “One who eats alone cannot discuss the taste of the food with others”. A diet low in sugar, salt and fats will keep you and your loved ones healthy. General Health: Diet  
8 16 If u or ur partner had unsafe sex in the past, ur at risk of carrying HIV. Test early to protect u & people u care for. Visit www.nottingham.ac.uk/health4u HIV: Protecting others, test info PSus, CTA
8 17 African Proverb: “He who conceals his disease cannot expect to be cured”. If you are not feeling well, don’t hesitate to see a doctor. General Health: Seek help  
9 18 “It is health that is real wealth and not pieces of gold and silver”. Be active! Try to do at least 2½ hours of moderate physical activity each week. General Health: Exercise  
9 19 Feeling good? Make sure you stay healthy & well and get an HIV test. Not everyone with HIV gets symptoms but early treatment can keep you feeling fit. HIV: Feeling good SE, PSus, PSev, CTA
10 20 African proverb: “If you close your eyes to facts, you will learn through accidents”. Find out how to stay healthy & feeling well. Visit www.nhs.uk/change4life General Health: Stay healthy  
10 21 Look after yourself & your partner: Get tested together for HIV! People with HIV can still have great relationships. Visit http://StartsWithMe.org.uk HIV: Protecting your partner, test info SE, CTA, PBen
11 22 Many people in Nottingham have HIV and don't know it. Even if you feel well, it’s good to get tested at least once per year. HIV: Invisible diagnosis PSus, CTA
11 23 Proverb: “A friend is someone you share the path with”. Life can be stressful. Don’t be afraid to ask for help. General Health: Stress/seek help  
12 24 “Health is the greatest possession. Contentment is the greatest treasure. Confidence is the greatest friend.” It’s important to look after your health. General Health: Stay healthy  
12 25 Xxxxxxxxxx, thank you for taking part in Health4U! Health messages from us will now stop. Two more text messages will follow to ask your opinion on the project. Thank you  
12 26 Have Health4U text messages inspired you to take action on health? Please reply YES if you have had an HIV test in the last 12 weeks & NO if not. Did you get an HIV test?  
12 27 Was Health4U USEFUL for you? Please HELP our research by completing a short questionnaire. Visit www.nottingham.ac.uk/health4u. Thanks! African Institute H4U Link to post-intervention survey  
12 26 Have Health4U text messages inspired you to take action on health? Please reply YES if you have had an HIV test in the last 12 weeks & NO if not. Did you get an HIV test?  
12 27 Was Health4U USEFUL for you? Please HELP our research by completing a short questionnaire. Visit www.nottingham.ac.uk/health4u. Thanks! African Institute H4U Link to post-intervention survey  
  1. PSus perceived susceptibility
  2. PSev perceived severity
  3. PBen perceived benefits
  4. PBar perceived barriers
  5. CTA cue to action
  6. SE self efficacy