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Table 4 Prevalence of hypertension by gender and by selected metabolic- and behaviour determinants and their associations (Odds Ratio (OR)) with hypertension among 15–64 year old citizens of Myanmar

From: Prevalence and determinants of hypertension in Myanmar - a nationwide cross-sectional study

  Male Female
   No. (%) with hypertensiona Model 1b   Model 2c, d    No. (%) with hypertensiona Model 1b   Model 2c, d  
  N OR (95 % CI) b P-value OR (95 % CI) c, d p-value N OR (95 % CI) a p-value OR (95 % CI) c, d P-value
BMI             
 Underweight 569 115 (20.1) 0.66 (0.52–0.84) 0,001 0.63 (0.49–0.82) 0,001 736 118 (16.0) 0.55 (0.52–0.83) <0.001 0.56 (0.44–0.72) <0.001
 Normal weight 1764 487 (27.6) 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)   2344 581 (24.8) 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)  
 Overweight 479 245 (51.2) 2.55 (2.05–3.16) <0.001 2.63 (2.08–3.33) <0.001 1304 611 (46.9) 2.36 (2.03–2.76) <0.001 2.31 (1.97–2.72) <0.001
WC             
 Normal 2774 819 (29.5) 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)   3765 967 (25.7) 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)  
 Male ≥102 cm, female ≥88 cm 44 30 (68.2) 3.64 (1.89–7.00) <0.001 3.4 (1.77–6.78) <0.001 617 344 (55.8) 2.83 (2.36–3.4) <0.001 2.71 (2.23–3.3) <0.001
Smoking status             
 Never smoker 1302 358 (27.5) 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)   3967 1178 (29.7) 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)  
 Current smoker 1270 389 (30.6) 1.05 (0.88–1.26) 0,58 1.03 (0.86–1.23) 0,719 352 99 (28.2) 0.52 (0.4–0.68) <0.001 0.53 (0.41–0.69) <0.001
 Former smoker 270 108 (40) 1.25 (0.94–1.67) 0,121 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 0,196 98 39 (39.8) 0.76 (0.5–1.1) 0,206 0.77 (0.5–1.18) 0,23
Smokeless tobacco status             
 Never 1268 385 (30.4) 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)   3678 1095 (29.7) 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)  
 Current 1465 427 (29.2) 1.04 (0.88–1.24) 0,638 1.03 (0.84–1.24) 0,67 724 216 (29.8) 0.78 (0.66–0.95) 0,01 0.77 (0.64–0.93) 0,006
 Former 109 43 (39.5) 1.45 (0.96–2.21) 0,081 1.41 (0.92–2.15) 0,117 15 6 (40.0) 1.17 (0.39–3.5) 0,769 1.1 (0.37–3.28) 0,863
Daily fruit and veg. use             
  ≥5 servings 286 77 (26.9) 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)   401 109 (27.2) 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)  
  <5 servings 2320 703 (30.3) 1.10 (0.83–1.47) 0,506 1.06 (0.8–1.42)   3696 1104 (29.9) 1.11 (0.87–1.42) 0,381 1.13 (0.88–1.45) 0,332
Oil use             
 Peanut oil 1184 369 (31.2) 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)   1873 570 (30.4) 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)  
 Palm oil 534 179 (33.5) 1.11 (0.89–1.40) 0,357 1.11 (0.87–1.41) 0,406 917 293 (32.0) 1.1 0.92–1.32) 0,266 1.15 (0.95–1.4) 0,159
 Mix of peanut and palm oil 326 115 (35.3) 1.09 (0.84–1.43) 0,487 71.08 (0.82–1.43) 0,582 491 160 (32.6) 1.04 (0.83–1.31) 0,693 1.07 (0.85–1.35) 0,543
 Sesame oil 532 118 (22.2) 0.59 (0.46–0.76) <0.001 0.64 (0.49–0.89) 0,001 730 181 (24.8) 0.71 (0.58–0.87) 0,001 0.75 (0.60–0.94) 0,011
 Other oil 249 71 (28.5) 0.91 (0.67–1.24) 0,562 0.96 (0.7–1.32) 0,803 377 105 (27.9) 0.87 (0.67–1.12) 0,293 0.89 (0.68–1.16) 0,389
Current alcohol drinkers             
 Drinkers 891 314 (35.3) 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)   69 20 (29.0) 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)  
 Non-drinkers 1951 541 (27.7) 0.58 (0.48–0.69) <0.001 0.57 (0.48–0.69) <0.001 4348 1296 (29.8) 0.89 (0.52–1.55) 0,707 0.94 (0.53–1.65) 0,817
Vigorous activity at work             
 Yes 1167 291 (24.9) 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)   664 149 (22.4) 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)  
 No 1673 563 (33.6) 1.36 (1.14–1.62) <0.001 1.33 (1.11–1.59) 0,002 3751 1167 (31.1) 1.35 (1.10–1.66) 0,003 1.33 (1.07–1.64) 0,009
  1. a SBP ≥ 140 or DBP ≥ 90, or uses antihypertensive medications; bAdjusted for age; cBMI and WC are adjusted for age, urban/rural, region, years at school, smoking status, smokeless tobacco status, daily fruit and veg use, oil use, current alcohol drinkers and vigorous activity at work; dSmoking status, smokless tobacco status, daily fruit and veg. use, oil use, alcohol and activity at work are adjusted for age, urban/rural, region and years at school