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Table 3 Prevalence of hypertension by gender and by sociodemographic determinants and their associations (Odds Ratio (OR)) with hypertension among 15–64 year old citizens of Myanmar

From: Prevalence and determinants of hypertension in Myanmar - a nationwide cross-sectional study

  Male Female
  N No. (%) with hypertensiona Model 1   Model 2   N No. (%) with hypertensiona Model 1   Model 2  
  2862 OR (95 % CI) b p-value OR (95 % CI) c p-value 4457 OR (95 % CI) b p-value OR (95 % CI) c p-value
Age
 15–24 415 53 (12.9) 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)   518 43 (7.5) 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)  
 25–34 619 114 (18.4) 1.53 (1.07–2.18) 0.018 1.59 (1.11–2.27) 0.01 945 145 (15.5) 2.28 (1.59–3.26) <0.001 2.3 (1.60–3.29) <0.001
 35–44 657 194 (29.8) 2.88 (2.06–4.02) <0.001 2.91 (2.08–4.08) <0.001 1144 318 (28.0) 4.82 (3.45–6.76) <0.001 4.91 (3.5–6.89) <0.001
 45–54 656 237 (36.5) 3.90 (2.80–5.42) <0.001 3.94 (2.82–5.52) <0.001 1049 419 (40.3) 8.36 (5.99–11.69) <0.001 8.52 (6.06–11.98) <0.001
 55–64 515 257 (50.1) 6.80 (4.86–9.52) <0.001 6.86 (4.85–9.7) <0.001 738 391 (53.4) 14.21 (10.09–20.0) <0.001 14.63 (10.28–20.82) <0.001
Urban/rural             
 Urban 851 299 (35.3) 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)   1311 438 (33.6) 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)  
 Rural 2011 556 (27.9) 0.71 (0.59–0.85) <0.001 0.71 (0.59–0.85) <0.001 3146 878 (28.2) 0.81 (0.70–0.94) 0.004 0.81 (0.70–0.95) 0.008
Region             
 Central Plains 1093 294 (27.1) 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)   1410 400 (28.6) 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)  
 Hilly 534 147 (27.63) 1.26 (0.99–1.61) 0.062 1.21 (0.9–1.64) 0.198 631 183 (29.2) 1.21 (0.97–1.51) 0.062 1.09 (0.83–1.43) 0.547
 Coastal 333 93 (28.62) 1.15 (0.86–1.53) 0.351 1.11 (0.79–1.57) 0.533 682 202 (30.2) 1.20 (0.97–1.49) 0.351 1.07 (0.83–1.39) 0.591
 Delta 902 321 (35.8) 1.49 (1.22–1.81) <0.001 1.48 (1.21–1.8) <0.001 1734 531 (30.8) 1.20 (1.62–1.42) 0.026 1.19 (1.01–1.40) 0.038
Years at school             
 0 years 234 86 (36.8) 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)   438 156 (35.9) 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)  
 1–5 years 743 218 (29.6) 0.92 (0.67–1.26) 0.598 0.89 (0.64–1.22) 0.465 1810 586 (32.6) 1.12 (0.89–1.41) 0.34 1.13 (0.9–1.44) 0.283
 6–11 years 1520 465 (30.8) 1.13 (0.84–1.53) 0.418 1.04 (0.76–1.42) 0.793 1700 462 (27.5) 1.22 (0.96–1.55) 0.109 1.17 (0.92–1.5) 0.207
  > 11 years 365 86 (23.7) 0.94 (0.64–1.37) 0.729 0.8 (0.53–1.18) 0.264 509 112 (22.1) 1.14 (0.84–1.56) 0.395 1.08 (0.79–1.5) 0.612
Ethnicity             
 Bamar 2094 629 (30.0) 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)   3238 629 (30.0) 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)  
 Other ethnic 768 226 (29.4) 1.02 (0.85–1.24) 0.786 1.03 (0.85–1.24) 0.863 1219 226 (29.4) 1.16 (0.99–1.35) 0.61 1.18 (0.95–1.45) 0.132
  1. aSBP ≥ 140 or DBP ≥ 90, or uses antihypertensive medications; bAdjusted for age; cAdjusted for age, rural/urban, region, years at school and ethnicity