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Table 4 Association between selected variables and homebound status according to ICF Checklist degree of disability

From: Prevalence of and factors associated with homebound status among adults in urban and rural Spanish populations

  No/mild Moderate/severe  
Variable N (%)a OR (95 % CI)b N (%)a OR (95 % CI)b P c
Population, urban 13 (8) 0.99 (0.49–2.03) 33 (67) 1.75 (0.84–3.65) 0.27
Sex, women 32 (8) 2.83 (1.08–7.43) 94 (67) 3.36 (1.79–6.29) 0.77
Age group, years      0.03
 50–64 11 (6) 1 (ref.) 4 (27) 1 (ref.)  
 65–79 14 (5) 0.66 (0.28–1.55) 35 (52) 3.54 (0.95–13.12)  
 ≥ 80 12 (12) 1.64 (0.66–4.05) 83 (58) 2.47 (0.71–8.60)  
Marital status, with spouse 20 (5) 0.64 (0.32–1.30) 54 (52) 1.37 (0.72–2.61) 0.11
Educational level      0.13
 Less than primary 18 (9) 1 (ref.) 76 (52) 1 (ref.)  
 Primary 13 (5) 0.54 (0.25–1.16) 38 (59) 1.52 (0.77–3.00)  
 Secondary or higher 6 (7) 0.92 (0.33–2.58) 8 (50) 1.68 (0.49–5.82)  
Living arrangements, alone 7 (7) 0.72 (0.30–1.74) 10 (38) 0.50 (0.19–1.27) 0.57
Tobacco use      0.19
 Never smoker 30 (8) 1 (ref.) 101 (63) 1 (ref.)  
 Ex-smoker 2 (2) 0.33 (0.07–1.46) 19 (35) 0.91 (0.37–2.26)  
 Current smoker 4 (6) 0.81 (0.22–2.98) 1 (10) 0.17 (0.02–1.58)  
Alcohol consumption (≥1 standard drink/day) 5 (2) 0.39 (0.14–1.03) 8 (22) 0.37 (0.15–0.93) 0.96
Body mass index (kg/m2)      0.23
 <25 6 (6) 1 (ref.) 25 (50) 1 (ref.)  
 25–29.9 13 (6) 0.96 (0.34–2.69) 31 (48) 0.72 (0.30–1.74)  
 ≥30 17 (10) 1.81 (0.67–4.89) 32 (50) 0.64 (0.27–1.55)  
No. of chronic disorders      0.18
 0–1 4 (2) 1 (ref.) 12 (44) 1 (ref.)  
 2–3 22 (8) 4.61 (1.32–16.09) 57 (49) 1.18 (0.39–3.61)  
 ≥ 4 11 (11) 7.37 (1.25–43.45) 53 (65) 2.56 (0.46–14.15)  
Cognitive impairment (MEC <24) 3 (14) 2.31 (0.62–8.67) 67 (64) 2.28 (1.23–4.22) 0.99
Dependence in ≥ 1 basic ADL 19 (13) 2.91 (1.43–5.95) 109 (63) 2.94 (1.31–6.58) 0.99
Nursing services 23 (6) 0.71 (0.33–1.54) 92 (57) 1.30 (0.67–2.51) 0.23
Visit, primary care physician 32 (7) 1.62 (0.55–4.75) 85 (53) 0.77 (0.39–1.51) 0.25
Visit, specialist physician 29 (10) 3.60 (1.53–8.46) 55 (56) 1.13 (0.61–2.11) 0.03
Hospital admissions 1 (4) 0.95 (0.12–7.62) 22 (73) 4.00 (1.40–11.41) 0.23
Rehabilitation services 4 (9) 1.30 (0.43–3.90) 7 (41) 0.80 (0.23–2.71) 0.56
Use of a caregiver 8 (15) 2.83 (1.18–6.81) 101 (59) 1.93 (0.94–3.94) 0.50
Self-rated health, less than good (≤50) 24 (9) 3.45 (1.43–8.35) 54 (60) 3.17 (1.17–8.59) 0.90
Depressive symptoms (EURO-D ≥4) 20 (13) 3.52 (1.68–7.34) 40 (61) 2.42 (1.18–4.94) 0.47
Pain      0.21
 None/mild 6 (2) 1 (ref.) 40 (40) 1 (ref.)  
 Moderate 25 (9) 4.41 (1.65–11.80) 54 (59) 1.53 (0.78–3.00)  
 Severe 6 (18) 11.5 (3.17–41.3) 19 (76) 4.24 (1.39–12.94)  
Hypertension 16 (6) 0.77 (0.38–1.54) 56 (49) 0.71 (0.38–1.33) 0.88
Ischaemic heart disease 2 (5) 0.93 (0.21–4.15) 15 (50) 0.89 (0.35–2.24) 0.96
Arrhythmias 1 (2) 0.21 (0.03–1.58) 28 (61) 1.32 (0.61–2.87) 0.09
Heart failure 2 (17) 2.07 (0.43–9.87) 7 (54) 1.02 (0.28–3.72) 0.49
Cerebrovascular disease 2 (6) 0.95 (0.21–4.23) 31 (58) 1.64 (0.77–3.48) 0.53
Peripheral arterial disease 0 (0) d 2 (33) 0.48 (0.07–3.15)  
COPD 1 (3) 0.52 (0.06–4.10) 19 (63) 2.36 (0.97–5.75) 0.19
Asthma 0 (0) d 6 (55) 0.82 (0.20–3.41)  
Diabetes 10 (12) 2.47 (1.12–5.48) 31 (65) 1.92 (0.89–4.14) 0.65
Thyroid diseases 5 (9) 1.24 (0.46–3.37) 10 (56) 0.59 (0.19–1.80) 0.33
Chronic renal failure 3 (33) 5.21 (1.18–23.02) 11 (55) 1.39 (0.49–3.97) 0.15
Chronic liver disease 1 (20) 3.31 (0.34–32.15) 0 (0) d  
Anaemia 1 (5) 0.85 (0.11–6.63) 5 (38) 0.43 (0.12–1.53) 0.58
Cancer 1 (4) 0.71 (0.09–5.56) 9 (64) 3.28 (0.84–12.85) 0.22
Anxiety disorder 4 (7) 0.96 (0.32–2.89) 4 (31) 0.26 (0.07–0.93) 0.13
Depression 14 (15) 2.85 (1.36–5.95) 29 (60) 1.15 (0.56–2.37) 0.08
Dementia 0 (0) d 26 (60) 0.68 (0.29–1.59)  
Neurodegenerative diseases and dystrophiese 2 (33) 16.6 (2.64–105.0) 5 (45) 0.96 (0.23–4.05) 0.02
Severe mental disease 0 (0) d 4 (67) 1.48 (0.21–10.51)  
Arthritis or arthrosis 29 (10) 3.10 (1.37–7.02) 61 (56) 0.99 (0.54–1.82) 0.03
Hip fracture 1 (20) 3.51 (0.36–34.05) 6 (75) 1.76 (0.23–13.33) 0.66
Visual impairment 2 (9) 1.67 (0.36–7.76) 24 (73) 3.23 (1.30–7.98) 0.47
Audition impairment 0 (0) d 16 (62) 2.20 (0.82–5.86)  
Urinary incontinence 3 (14) 1.75 (0.47–6.44) 13 (62) 0.72 (0.27–1.94) 0.29
  1. ADL activities of daily living, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CI confidence interval, ICF international classification of functioning, MEC Miniexamen cognoscitivo, OR odds ratio, WHODAS World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule
  2. aNumber and percentage of homebound cases
  3. bOdds ratios calculated by means of logistic regression models that included interaction terms between the dichotomous variable “disability” (in the Activities & Participation domain of the ICF Checklist) and the study variables. The models also included sex, age group, area (rural/urban), and number of years of formal schooling (except in educational level), chronic disorders (excluding index disease), and cognitive impairment (yes/no) except in dementia
  4. cP-value for interaction
  5. dEmpty cells due to lack of subjects in relevant subgroup
  6. eParkinson’s disease, Multiple Sclerosis and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis