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Table 2 Association between selected variables and homebound status in a population testing positive to disability screening

From: Prevalence of and factors associated with homebound status among adults in urban and rural Spanish populations

Variable N (%) Homebound
n (%)
OR (95 % CI)a OR (95 % CI)b
All 790 (100) 159 (20)   
Population, urban 219 (28) 46 (21) 1.23 (0.80–1.87) 2.36 (1.30–4.29)
Sex, women 519 (66) 126 (24) 2.38 (1.52–3.73) 3.75 (2.10–6.68)
Age group, years     
 50–64 210 (27) 15 (7) 1 (ref). 1 (ref).
 65–79 335 (42) 49 (15) 1.93 (1.03–3.60) 0.66 (0.30–1.45)
 ≥80 245 (31) 95 (39) 6.39 (3.44–11.84) 0.63 (0.28–1.43)
Marital status, with spouse 489 (62) 74 (15) 0.81 (0.54–1.22) 0.97 (0.57–1.65)
Educational level     
 Less than primary 343 (43) 94 (27) 1 (ref). 1 (ref).
 Primary 344 (44) 51 (15) 0.62 (0.41–0.95) 0.94 (0.54–1.61)
 Secondary or higher 103 (13) 14 (14) 0.95 (0.48–1.90) 1.93 (0.77–4.85)
Living arrangements, alone 129 (16) 17 (13) 0.37 (0.20–0.66) 0.88 (0.45–1.74)
Tobacco use     
 Never smoker 532 (68) 131 (25) 1 (ref). 1 (ref).
 Ex-smoker 174 (22) 21 (12) 0.71 (0.36–1.39) 0.79 (0.32–1.93)
 Current smoker 81 (10) 5 (6) 0.54 (0.18–1.65) 0.61 (0.16–2.31)
Alcohol consumption (≥1 standard drink/day) 241 (31) 13 (5) 0.25 (0.13–0.47) 0.56 (0.27–1.16)
Body Mass Index (kg/m2)     
 <25 150 (22) 31 (21) 1 (ref). 1 (ref).
 25–29.9 293 (43) 44 (15) 0.75 (0.42–1.32) 0.80 (0.38–1.64)
 ≥30 239 (35) 49 (21) 1.16 (0.66–2.04) 1.01 (0.49–2.06)
Number of chronic disorders     
 0–1 225 (29) 16 (7) 1 (ref). 1 (ref).
 2–3 381 (48) 79 (21) 2.40 (1.31–4.41) 2.28 (0.85–6.06)
 ≥4 180 (23) 64 (36) 4.09 (2.13–7.82) 4.32 (0.83–22.50)
Cognitive impairment (MEC <24) 127 (16) 70 (55) 5.56 (3.41–9.09) 0.94 (0.49–1.80)
Disability (WHODAS 12 ≥ 20) 407 (52) 152 (37) 28.2 (12.2–65.4) 6.27 (2.56–15.40)
ICF Checklist disability, moderate/severe 230 (26) 122 (53) 18.2 (10.9–30.2) 10.45 (5.99–18.23)
Dependence in ≥1 basic ADL 317 (40) 128 (40) 6.77 (4.23–10.82) 1.18 (0.65–2.12)
Nursing services 517 (66) 115 (22) 1.04 (0.67–1.63) 0.97 (0.55–1.68)
Visit, primary care physician 613 (78) 117 (19) 0.73 (0.46–1.14) 0.81 (0.44–1.48)
Visit, specialist physician 399 (51) 84 (21) 1.43 (0.96–2.12) 1.76 (1.03–3.00)
Hospital admissions 55 (7) 23 (42) 4.04 (2.05–7.95) 2.98 (1.25–7.11)
Rehabilitation services 62 (8) 11 (18) 1.17 (0.55–2.47) 0.88 (0.35–2.22)
Use of a caregiver 226 (29) 109 (48) 7.40 (4.72–11.6) 0.74 (0.39–1.40)
Self-rated health, less than good (≤50) 343 (56) 78 (24) 4.02 (2.21–7.32) 2.02 (0.99–4.11)
Depressive symptoms (EURO-D ≥4) 226 (30) 60 (26) 2.95 (1.86–4.68) 2.31 (1.34–3.99)
Pain     
 No/mild 352 (45) 46 (13) 1 (ref). 1 (ref).
 Moderate 370 (47) 79 (21) 1.78 (1.14–2.77) 2.37 (1.30–4.31)
 Severe 59 (8) 25 (42) 5.91 (2.93–11.9) 3.03 (1.31–7.01)
  1. ADL activities of daily living, CI confidence interval, MEC Miniexamen cognoscitivo, OR odds ratio, WHODAS World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule
  2. aAdjusted for sex, age group, area (rural/urban), and number of years of formal education
  3. bAdditionally adjusted for number of chronic disorders, disability (ICF Checklist score, in logarithmic transformation), and cognitive impairment (yes/no)