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Table 4 Farmers’ annual contact time to irrigation water and farm soil per contact type and farm activity

From: A faecal exposure assessment of farm workers in Accra, Ghana: a cross sectional study

Variable % of farmers involved in activity at peak period % (N = 80) Percentage of farmers with contact to faecal contamination, % (n) Median (IQR) contact time, h/y
Bed Preparation (n = 19) 30 (24)   25 (16, 39)
 Hand-to-soil   100 (19) 24 (14, 39)
 Feet-to-soil   90 (17) 24 (16, 33)
 Hand-to-mouth/face, nr/y*   58 (11) 85 (45, 227)
Transplanting (n = 11) 18 (14)   18 (13, 45)
 Hand-to-soil   100 (11) 18 (13, 45)
 Feet-to-soil   100.(11) 18 (13, 45)
 Hand-to-mouth/face, nr/y   36 (4) 85 (57, 270)
Soil tilling (Forking, n = 36) 56 (45)   150 (83, 290)
 Hand-to-soil   97 (35) 152 (84, 308)
 Feet-to-soil   92 (33) 144 (81, 273)
 Hand-to-mouth/face, nr/y   61 (22) 454 (227, 852)
Weed Removal (n = 42) 66 (53)   99 (47, 189)
 Hand-to-soil   100 (42) 99 (47, 189)
 Feet-to-soil   98 (41) 95 (47, 189)
 Hand-to-mouth/face, nr/y   48 (20) 256 (128, 852)
Irrigation (n = 55) 86 (69)   1113 (426, 1617)
 Hand-to-irrigation water   93 (51) 1278 (451, 1633)
 Feet-to-soil   89 (49) 1278 (450, 1633)
 Feet-to-irrigation water   91 (50) 1295 (451, 1633)
Total hand-to-soil contact** 100 (80) 86 (69) 1339 (909, 1732)
Total feet-to-soil contact 100 (80) 93 (74) 2002 (1625, 2300)
Total hand-to-mouth contact events 100 (80) 53 (42) 3181 (1704, 5964)
  1. nr/y* = number of events per year
  2. ** Total hand-to-soil contact for 5 farm activities – bed preparation, transplanting, soil tilling, weed removal and harvesting
  3. Total feet-to-soil contact for 8 farm activities - bed preparation, transplanting, soil tilling, weed removal, irrigation, spraying, harvesting and transport of produce to roadside